### All AP Physics C: Mechanics Resources

## Example Questions

### Example Question #1 : Understanding Linear Rotational Equivalents

What is the rotational equivalent of mass?

**Possible Answers:**

Torque

Angular momentum

Radius

Moment of inertia

**Correct answer:**

Moment of inertia

The correct answer is moment of inertia. For linear equations, mass is what resists force and causes lower linear accelerations. Similarly, in rotational equations, moment of inertia resists torque and causes lower angular accelerations.

### Example Question #2 : Understanding Linear Rotational Equivalents

In rotational kinematics equations, what quantity is analogous to force in linear kinematics equations?

**Possible Answers:**

Impulse

Moment of inertia

Torque

Angular acceleration

**Correct answer:**

Torque

Just as force causes linear acceleration, torque causes angular acceleration. This can be seen most in the linear-rotational comparison of Newton's second law:

### Example Question #1 : Understanding Linear Rotational Equivalents

A boot is put in a stick which is attached to a rotor. The rotor turns with an angular velocity of . What is the linear velocity of the boot?

**Possible Answers:**

**Correct answer:**

Linear (tangential) velocity, is given by the following equation:

Here, is the angular velocity in radians per second and is the radius in meters.

Solve.

### Example Question #1 : Understanding Linear Rotational Equivalents

A particle is moving at constant speed in a straight line past a fixed point in space, c. How does the angular momentum of the particle about the fixed point in space change as the particle moves from point a to point b?

**Possible Answers:**

The angular momentum increases

It cannot be determined without knowing the mass of the particle

The particle does not have angular momentum since it is not rotating

The angular momentum decreases

The angular momentum does not change

**Correct answer:**

The angular momentum does not change

The angular momentum of a particle about a fixed axis is . As the particle draws nearer the fixed axis, both and change. However, the product remains constant. If you imagine a triangle connecting the three points, the product represents the "of closest approach", labeled "" in the diagram.

### Example Question #51 : Motion

Doing which of the following would allow you to find the center of mass of an object?

**Possible Answers:**

Spinning it

Recording its shape

Hanging it from a fixed point

Sliding it along a flat surface

**Correct answer:**

Spinning it

Center of mass can be found by spinning an object. It will naturally spin around its center of mass, due to the concept of even distribution of mass in relation to the center of mass. Shape and mass are important factors in this property, but the most improtant factor is the mass distribution.

### Example Question #1 : Understanding And Finding Center Of Mass

If the fulcrum of a balanced scale is shifted to the left, what type of adjustment must be made to rebalance the scale?

**Possible Answers:**

Apply the same amount of mass to both ends

If the scale was initially balanced, moving the fulcrum will not change this

Apply more mass to the new position of the fulcrum

Apply more mass to the right end

Apply more mass to the left end

**Correct answer:**

Apply more mass to the left end

Changing the position of the fulcrum by moving it to the left means the center of mass will be to the right of the new position. Therefore, the scale will tip right. Adding more mass to the left end will rebalance the scale. None of the other options make sense. Adding more mass to the new fulcrum position will not change the balance of the scale because that mass is a negligible distance from the new fulcrum position and does nothing to change the masses on either side.

### Example Question #51 : Motion

If two masses, and are placed on a seesaw of length , where must the fulcrum be placed such that the seesaw remains level?

**Possible Answers:**

**Correct answer:**

This question asks us to find the center of mass for this system. We know that the center of mass resides a distance from the first mass such that:

In this case:

Plug in known values and solve.

### Example Question #1 : Circular And Rotational Motion

Three point masses are at the points , and

and a point mass is at the point .

How far from the origin is the center of mass of the system?

**Possible Answers:**

**Correct answer:**

To find the center of mass, we have to take the weighted average of the x coordinates and the y coordinates.

Measures: Measures

First, we take the weighted measurement of the x-axis:

We can see that the result of the x-axis contribution is equal to .

Now, let's look at the y-axis contribution:

This equals to

Now that we have the x and y components, we take the root of squares to get the final answer:

This will give us

### Example Question #1 : Using Torque Equations

An object starts from rest and accelerates to an angular velocity of in three seconds under a constant torque of . How many revolutions has the object made in this time?

**Possible Answers:**

**Correct answer:**

Since it is experiencing a constant torque and constant angular acceleration, the angular displacement can be calculated using:

The angular acceleration is easily calculated using the angular velocity and the time:

Using this value, we can find the angular displacement:

Convert the angular displacement to revolutions by diving by :

### Example Question #1 : Rotational Motion And Torque

A circular disk of radius 0.5m and mass 3kg has a force of 25N exerted perpendicular to its edge, causing it to spin. What is the angular acceleration of the disk?

**Possible Answers:**

**Correct answer:**

We can find the angular acceleration using the rotaional motion equivalent of Newton's second law. In rotational motion, torque is the product of moment of inertia and angular acceleration:

The moment of inertia for a circular disk is:

The tourque is the product of force and distance (in this case, the radius):

We can plug these into our first equation:

Simplify and rearrange to derive an equation for angular acceleration:

Use our given values to solve:

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