AP European History : Science and Technology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP European History

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Example Questions

Example Question #57 : Cultural And Intellectual History

Which of the following individuals was the first to employ the term “cell” to describe the composition of organisms?

Possible Answers:

Robert Boyle

Charles Dickens

Francis Bacon

Robert Hooke

Charles Darwin

Correct answer:

Robert Hooke

Explanation:

Robert Hooke was an English scientist in the seventeenth century who, among other things, pioneered work in the field of microbiology. He was the first man to employ the term “cell” to describe the composition of organisms that he observed under a microscope.

Example Question #58 : Cultural And Intellectual History

The first reliable mercury thermometer was invented by __________.

Possible Answers:

Francis Bacon

Isaac Newton

Gabriel Fahrenheit

Anders Celsius

Lord Kelvin

Correct answer:

Gabriel Fahrenheit

Explanation:

The first reliable mercury thermometer was invented by the German scientist Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1714. The scale used to measure temperature was later altered by the Swedish scientist Anders Celsius, who set the freezing point of water at zero and the boiling point at one hundred and created the Celsius temperature measurement system. Lord Kelvin is famous for inventing the Kelvin scale that sets its zero point at absolute zero, the lowest possible temperature attainable before matter becomes completely motionless and devoid of energy.

Example Question #59 : Cultural And Intellectual History

Johannes Kepler, Nicholas Copernicus, and Galileo were all notable __________.

Possible Answers:

mercenaries

astronomers

clergymen

impressionists

architects

Correct answer:

astronomers

Explanation:

Kepler, Copernicus, and Galileo were all notable astronomers in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Collectively they did a great deal to advance our understanding of the Earth’s place in the solar system and in the universe. Copernicus was the first to prove, mathematically (his work improved upon by Kepler), that the sun, not the Earth, was the centre of the solar system. For their efforts, all three of these men had to fear intense church retribution when publishing their works.

Example Question #54 : Ap European History

The “uncertainty principle” is most closely associated with __________.

Possible Answers:

Alfred Nobel

Friedrich Nietzsche

Immanuel Kant

Werner Heisenberg

Marie Curie

Correct answer:

Werner Heisenberg

Explanation:

The “uncertainty principle” states that you can never simultaneously know the position and velocity of an electron; you can only know one or the other at a time. Essentially, if you know how fast it is moving, you do not know where it is, and vice versa. The exact reasons for this are too complicated to go into here, but the important thing to note is that the nature of this discovery is critical to understanding the scientific perspective of the first half of the twentieth century. The absolute faith in the power of science to explain the workings of the universe was being questioned anew, as science was creating more questions than answers.

Example Question #61 : Cultural And Intellectual History

As the center of trade between Europe and Asia, __________ spread Middle Eastern and Chinese technology, mathematics, and philosophy in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

Possible Answers:

the Iberian Peninsula

the Ottoman Empire

the Austro-Hungarian Empire

the Italian city-states

the Netherlands

Correct answer:

the Italian city-states

Explanation:

During the fourteenth and fifteenth century the Italian city-states (Florence, Milan, Pisa, Venice, Genoa, et al.) were the center of trade between Europe and Asia. As the volume of trade grew so too did the interaction between people of various cultures. Middle Eastern mathematics and technology were introduced into European society, as was eastern philosophy.

Example Question #62 : Cultural And Intellectual History

CERN is __________.

Possible Answers:

a treaty designed to ensure the continued sovereignty of all the independent nations of Europe

a pan-European military organization designed to provide for the mutual defense of all the European nations against external aggressors

a pan-European economic organization designed to prevent rampant inflation or stagflation

a pan-European scientific organization and center of research

a treaty designed to integrate the countries of the former Soviet Union into the European Union

Correct answer:

a pan-European scientific organization and center of research

Explanation:

CERN was established 1954 on the border between Switzerland and France. It is a pan-European cooperative venture designed to encourage scientific innovation and a pooling of research and resources. It is currently the world’s largest particle physics laboratory and is also where the World Wide Web was implemented.

Example Question #61 : Cultural And Intellectual History

Which country can be credited with starting the Industrial Revolution?

Possible Answers:

Italy

France

Germany

Spain

Great Britain

Correct answer:

Great Britain

Explanation:

Britain had a number of environmental factors which put them in the lead over other nations when it came to industrializing. The island of Great Britain had large reserves of coal for fuel burning that was easily accessible. The British government also exerted extreme control over its populace, leading to large-scale industrial and manufacturing operations. Thirdly, Britain was a small country in comparison to most in Western Europe, and its small but relatively wealthy population helped facilitate industrial modernization. 

Example Question #11 : Science And Technology

The Ptolemaic system is often referred to as __________.

Possible Answers:

the heliocentric model of the ocean

the geocentric model of the universe

the Aristotelian model of the universe

the Aristotelian model of the heavens

the heliocentric model of the universe

Correct answer:

the geocentric model of the universe

Explanation:

The Ptolemaic system of the solar system was developed by a classical-era Roman scholar named Claudius Ptolemy. It is more often referred to as the geocentric model of the universe, or the geocentric model of the solar system. It was widely influential throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period as the primary model for understanding the movement of the planets and the sun. According to this model of the solar system, the Earth is at the center and all the other planets, the sun, and the stars revolve around the Earth. This was later disproved by Copernicus, who postulated the heliocentric model of the solar system in which the planets revolve around the sun.

Example Question #65 : Cultural And Intellectual History

What was one major consequence of the advent of the printing press?

Possible Answers:

The proliferation of printed Bibles

An insurrection against the Pope in Rome

The Papal Schism

A widespread decline in the number of clergymen

The start of the Thirty Years' War

Correct answer:

The proliferation of printed Bibles

Explanation:

The introduction of the printing press into European societies around 1440 CE allowed for the publication and proliferation of Bibles and other works of religious literature. While the other answers refer to events (very) roughly contemporaneous with the advent of the printing press, none can logically be considered consequences of it.

Example Question #12 : Science And Technology

The Scientific Revolution __________.

Possible Answers:

led to the wide acceptance of the geocentric model 

immediately led to the secularization of all learning 

saw the development of inductive and deductive reasoning

embraced the principles of Romanticism

discouraged the spread of scientific ideas outside of academia

Correct answer:

saw the development of inductive and deductive reasoning

Explanation:

The Scientific Revolution saw scientific writing published in the vernacular, which encouraged the spread of ideas outside of academia. This was a period when scientists embraced the power of reason and observation, which led to the increased acceptance of the heliocentric model of the solar system, rather than the geocentric model.

The Scientific Revolution saw the development of deductive reasoning (typified by the work of Rene Descartes) and inductive reasoning (typified by the work of Sir Francis Bacon).

While there were tensions between some scientists and the church, all learning was not secularized in this period and some, like Bacon, remained devout in their religious beliefs and practice. 

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