AP European History : Sanitation and Health Care

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP European History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #91 : Social And Economic History

Bubonic Plague was no longer a massive threat to European society beginning in which century?

Possible Answers:

The sixteenth century

The seventeenth century

The nineteenth century

The twentieth century

The eighteenth century

Correct answer:

The nineteenth century

Explanation:

Bubonic Plague, sometimes called the Black Death, devastated European society routinely from the fourteenth century to the eighteenth century. It remained occasionally threatening into the nineteenth century, but by the time the nineteenth century came to an end, improvements in sanitation and the widespread usage of quarantines rendered the plague far less threatening and virtually eradicated.

Example Question #11 : Sanitation And Health Care

This physician authored On the Movement of the Heart and Blood, which correctly explained the movement of blood through arteries and veins for the first time.

Possible Answers:

William Harvey

Robert Hooke

Henry Cavendish

Robert Owen

Florence Nightingale

Correct answer:

William Harvey

Explanation:

William Harvey was an English physician in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He is most famous for his work On the Movement of the Heart and Blood, which explained the circulation of blood around the body. Harvey was a prolific writer on the craft of being a doctor in general and his ideas about hospitals, medical science, and medical practice were widely influential for centuries to come.

Example Question #11 : Sanitation And Health Care

The Sadler Report was primarily concerned with __________.

Possible Answers:

understanding the nature of infections disease during the Stuart Restoration

improving hospital conditions in Britain in the late nineteenth century

limiting factory working hours for children during the Industrial Revolution

alleviating poverty in London during the Second World War

providing clean water to urban areas in Britain in the eighteenth century

Correct answer:

limiting factory working hours for children during the Industrial Revolution

Explanation:

The Sadler Report was published by a British parliamentary committee in 1832. Its primary concern was alleviating poverty in industrial centers during the early years of the Industrial Revolution. Of particular importance was limiting factory working hours for children and providing safer and healthier living conditions.

Example Question #14 : Sanitation And Health Care

Louis Pasteur’s groundbreaking work in the nineteenth century has primarily impacted ___________.

Possible Answers:

hospital sanitation

food preservation

the availability of medicine

water purification

inoculations and vaccinations

Correct answer:

food preservation

Explanation:

Louis Pasteur was a French scientist who in the nineteenth century discovered that heating beer was enough to kill the bacteria that was responsible for causing the beer to go bad. His process of pasteurization allowed food to be preserved far more effectively and completely revolutionized the dairy industry, among others.

Example Question #11 : Sanitation And Health Care

The eruption of this disease in urban areas in the nineteenth century led to the Public Health Act of 1848 in Britain.

Possible Answers:

Polio

Cholera

Syphilis

Bubonic plague

Influenza

Correct answer:

Cholera

Explanation:

In the early years of the Industrial Revolution, the urban centers of Europe were filthy, and the mortality rates from disease were very high. In Britain, social reformers like Edwin Chadwick and, earlier, Jeremy Bentham worked to improve sanitation and living conditions for the very poor. The frequent eruption of the disease cholera provided the necessary impetus for the British government to adopt the Public Health Act of 1848, which focused on providing clean running water and an efficient and sanitary sewage system. It would have dramatic effects on the mortality rate of urban Britain.

Example Question #12 : Sanitation And Health Care

Edward Jenner was an English scientist and physician. In 1798, he developed the __________ vaccine and is consequently known as "the father of immunology.

Possible Answers:

Polio

Chickenpox

Smallpox

Swine flu

Rubella

Correct answer:

Smallpox

Explanation:

Jenner noted that milkmaids who received cowpox were protected against smallpox. He inoculated an eight-year old boy by infecting him first with cowpox. He later observed that when Philipps was exposed to smallpox he did not become infected. The smallpox vaccine was the first sucsessful vaccine in history, and thus one of the most important scientific developments in history.

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