AP European History : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP European History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #21 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

Marquis de Condorcet is best known for his __________.

Possible Answers:

devotion to civil resistance and non-violent demonstration

writings on capitalism and the benefits of the free market

attempts to reform the Catholic Church

advocation of equal rights for women and minorities

writings on mercantilism and the benefits of a controlled economy

Correct answer:

advocation of equal rights for women and minorities

Explanation:

Marquis de Condorcet was a French Enlightenment thinker and writer who is popularly remembered for his writings advocating for equal rights for women and minorities. He remains an influential early feminist writer as well as influential in other areas of philosophy and political theory.

Example Question #22 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

“Man was born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”

The above quotation can best be attributed to __________.

Possible Answers:

Voltaire

John Locke

Rousseau

Thomas Hobbes

Descartes

Correct answer:

Rousseau

Explanation:

The above quotation is the most famous quotation attributed to the French Enlightenment philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau in The Social Contract. It reflects his belief that man is born free in a state of nature, but is corrupted and imprisoned by the constructs and constraints of society.

Quotation adapted from The Social Contract & Discourses by Jean-Jaques Rousseau (1762; 1920 J. M. Dent & Sons ed.)

 

Example Question #21 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

Which of these statements best reflects the view of Thomas Hobbes on the basic rights of humankind?

Possible Answers:

Hobbes believed that all people have certain inalienable rights that they must protect from the government.

Hobbes believed that basic human rights could only be ensured through an inclusive, republican society.

Hobbes believed no one has the right to anything except that which he or she can personally protect.

None of these statements reflects the views of Thomas Hobbes on the basic rights of humankind.

Hobbes believed that all people have certain inalienable rights that the government was responsible for protecting.

Correct answer:

Hobbes believed no one has the right to anything except that which he or she can personally protect.

Explanation:

Thomas Hobbes was a famous Enlightenment-era thinker whose opinion that the life of people in an ungoverned state of nature is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” is usually contrasted against John Locke’s belief in natural human rights. Hobbes would contend that people only have the right to that which they can protect for themselves.

Quotation adapted from Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes (1651; ed. A. R. Waller, 1904 ed.)

 

Example Question #21 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Men was written as a retort to the conservative writings of __________.

Possible Answers:

Voltaire

Edmund Burke

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Descartes

Montesquieu

Correct answer:

Edmund Burke

Explanation:

Mary Wollstonecraft is most famous for her Enlightenment feminist work A Vindication of the Rights of Woman; however, she was also a notable advocate for republicanism and a supporter of the French Revolution. In A Vindication of the Rights of Men, Wollstonecraft attacks the conservative arguments that Edmund Burke had made in Reflections of the Revolution in France.

Example Question #21 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

Pugachev's Rebellion happened during the reign of __________.

Possible Answers:

Catherine the Great

Alexander I

Nicholas I

Peter the Great 

Alexander II

Correct answer:

Catherine the Great

Explanation:

Pugachev's Rebellion happened in Russia during the reign of the so-called "enlightened despot" Catherine the Great. It began as a rebellion of the Cossacks and some of the Russian nobility and spread rapidly through the peasantry until it was quashed violently by the forces of Tsarist Russia.

Example Question #22 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

The Bismarckian policy of kulturkampf (“culture war”) targeted which demographic?

Possible Answers:

Bohemian nonconformists living at the outer edges of society

The militant student activists who had helped lead the failed revolutions of 1848

Socialists, who Bismarck sought to co-opt by satisfying the lower class with social safety policies

Catholics, especially those belonging to the Conservative Centre party

Classical liberals, due to their opposition to the “coalition of iron and rye” that placed the state in an alliance with industry and agricultural interests

Correct answer:

Catholics, especially those belonging to the Conservative Centre party

Explanation:

The kulturkampf was a series of laws passed during the 1870s designed to oppress and reduce the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. The liberal and Protestant majority of Germany, under Bismarck, turned against the substantial Catholic minority with legislation that closed parishes and monasteries, forced priests into exile, and denied the church a political voice. The legal campaign was brought to a halt as Bismarck came to realize the political utility of an anti-Socialist alliance with the Catholics. While it is true that classical liberals would oppose the interference of the state in the economy, that Bismarck co-opted socialists, and that student activists were influential in the 1848 revolutions, they were not the object of the kulturkampf.

Example Question #27 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher who coined the Social Contract theory in a time of increasing urbanization. What is the basis of his theory?

Possible Answers:

That citizens sacrifice some of their individual rights to their government in exchange for safety and security

That science can be applied to both the spiritual and natural worlds

That secular morality works in conjunction with religious morality

That humans should eat each other to curb population growth

That humans are base and need religion to dictate their morality

Correct answer:

That citizens sacrifice some of their individual rights to their government in exchange for safety and security

Explanation:

Hobbes' idea of the Social Contract stems from humans' desire for safety by giving up some of their individual rights. The main example of the social contract is the implicit agreement that people make to give power to social institutions to imprison or confine some people in society under the assumption that, overall, if the freedom of some violent people is compromised the overall safety of most people will be preserved. While everyone forfeits their absolute freedom in this case, the social contract holds that this loss of absolute freedom is accompanied by the freedom gained through societal protection.

Example Question #21 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

Which of the following were elements of the English Bill of Rights that William and Mary had to agree to before they could be crowned monarchs of England?

Possible Answers:

All the answers provided are accurate

Gave Parliament "Power of the Purse"

English Citizens had rights even a monarch could not undo

Barred Roman Catholics from sitting of the throne

Correct answer:

All the answers provided are accurate

Explanation:

The English Bill of Rights outlined the rights of English Citizens, as well as the structure of the government going forward. Among the structures put forth were the preclusion of a Catholic from the throne, the superiority of Parliament over the monarch, and the power of parliament to control the finances of the realm.

Example Question #22 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

Which persecuted religious minority drew inspiration from the writings of John Calvin and were granted rights as a result of the Edict of Nantes?

Possible Answers:

Cathars

Presbyterians

Huguenot

Anglicans

Lutherans

Correct answer:

Huguenot

Explanation:

The Huguenots were French Protestants dominated for a time by the majority Catholic population of France. Conflict between Catholics and Huguenots led to the 16th century Wars of Religions in France, settled by the Edict of Nantes. Huguenots, however, would later be forced to flee and resettle in other countries.

Example Question #23 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

There have been how many Partitions of Poland? Be sure to choose the answer indicating the correct years.

Possible Answers:

1: (1939)

4: (1772, 1793, 1795, 1939)

1: (1795)

2: (1795, 1939)

3: (1772, 1793, 1795)

Correct answer:

3: (1772, 1793, 1795)

Explanation:

It is widely accepted that Poland has been partitioned three times (in 1772, 1793, and 1795). Although Nazi Germany and the USSR would divide up Poland in the Molotov-Ribbontrop Agreement, this agreement was never stabilized and never acknowledged by the USSR following the war and is therefore not considered to be a "partition" as commonly defined.

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