AP Biology : Plant Biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #2 : Macrostructures

The layer of cells that separates the a leaf from the environment (the outermost layer of leaf tissue) is called the __________.

Possible Answers:

xylem

epidermis

stomata

spongy mesophyll

bundle sheath

Correct answer:

epidermis

Explanation:

The outer layer of cells on a leaf is called the epidermis. It is composed of the upper epidermis and the lower epidermis and the two have somewhat different structures and function, but both serve to protect the leaf from the outside environment. Spongy mesophyll and bundle sheath cells are both structures on the interior of the leaf, which house chloroplasts. Stomata are found on the outside layer of a leaf, but they are pores that allow gas exchange. Xylem is a transport structure that is used to conduct water and nutrients through a plant.

Example Question #3 : Macrostructures

In which of the following leaf tissues does the most photosynthesis take place?

Possible Answers:

Cuticle

Epidermis

Stoma

Mesophyll

Guard cells

Correct answer:

Mesophyll

Explanation:

The mesophyll of a leaf contains palisade parenchyma cells (along with other cell types) which contain a high concentration of chloroplasts and are located near the edge of the leaf. These parenchyma cells in the mesophyll perform the bulk of the photosynthesis in a plant, though any part of a plant that contains chlorophyll can photosynthesize, including the spongy mesophyll.

Example Question #4 : Macrostructures

What is the name of the structure of the leaf that attaches the leaf to the stem?

Possible Answers:

Filament

Xylem

Phloem

Petiole

Mesophyll

Correct answer:

Petiole

Explanation:

The petiole attaches the leaf to the stem. Xylem is a tissue that transports water and minerals from the roots to other areas of a plant. Phloem is a tissue that transport water and nutrients from the leaves down to other areas of the plant. A filament is a part of a flower, not a leaf. Mesophyll is the tissue that makes up much of the body of the leaf and is where most photosynthesis takes place, but does not attach the leaf to the stem.

Example Question #5 : Macrostructures

Which of the following can be defined as the tissue in the interior of the leaf?

Possible Answers:

Mesophyll

Stomata

Chlorophyll

Grana

Correct answer:

Mesophyll

Explanation:

The mesophyll is the interior of the leaf. Chloroplasts are mainly found within the mesophyll and leaves are the major sites of photosynthesis in plants.

Example Question #6 : Macrostructures

Which of the following terms is best defined as the microscopic pores on the leaf?

Possible Answers:

Thylakoids

Chlorophyll

Stomata

Stroma

Correct answer:

Stomata

Explanation:

Stomata are the pores on the leaves that allow for carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to leave the leaf. Stroma, thylakoids, and chlorophyll are all components of the chloroplasts.

Example Question #1 : Macrostructures

Which of the following is a method plants use to attract potential pollinators?

Possible Answers:

All of these

Formation of bright or colorful flowers

Production of a foul or sweet odor

Production of nectar in its flowers

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Attracting pollinators is key for many plants' success. There are a variety of strategies plants use such as the creation of nectar or odor as well as bright colors to attract pollinators. Also, some plants have ultraviolet patterns on their flowers to direct animals toward their nectar to facilitate pollination.

Example Question #2 : Macrostructures

What strategies might a plant use to disperse its seeds?

Possible Answers:

The seeds may be blown by the wind

The seeds may survive animal digestion and be relocated when the animal defecates

The seeds may float and be carried by rain or streams

All of these

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Seed dispersal is key to plant success and plants use a wide variety of strategies to facilitate this process. Plants use all the listed strategies in order to spread their seeds. They also make seeds with adhesive properties that stick to animals that pass by. The seeds are then brushed off some time later at a different location. 

Example Question #1 : Understanding Seeds, Flowers, And Fruits

Which of the following are not a part of a flower?

Possible Answers:

Stigma

Ovary

Petal

Leaf

Anther

Correct answer:

Leaf

Explanation:

Leaves are the sites of photosynthesis. Petals are specialized leaves that help attract pollinators. The stigma collects pollen, and facilitates its passage down the style to the ovary to fertilize the ovules (eggs). Anthers produce pollen. The ovary contains a collection of 1 or more ovules.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Seeds, Flowers, And Fruits

A fruit develops from the __________ of a flower.

Possible Answers:

anther

stigma

stamen

ovary

pedicel

Correct answer:

ovary

Explanation:

Once a plant is fertilized, the ovary will ripen around the developing seed of a plant and become a fruit. These fruits perform many functions including protection, provision of nutrients for the developing plant embryo, and aid in dispersal. The pedicel is the stem that connects the flower to the rest of the plant. The stigma is the sticky tip of the pistil that receives pollen from the environment. The stamen is the male section of the flower and the anther is the tip of the stamen that disperses pollen.

Example Question #3 : Understanding Seeds, Flowers, And Fruits

The primary function of the stamen is to __________.

Possible Answers:

receive pollen in order to fertilize the ovule

produce and distribute pollen

collect water and nutrients from the soil

protect the developing bud of a flower

attract pollinators

Correct answer:

produce and distribute pollen

Explanation:

The stamen is the male part of the flower which produces and distributes pollen. The female part of the flower is called the pistil and it receives pollen in order to fertilize the ovule. Roots are the structures that collect water and nutrients from the soil. Colorful petals and sugar-rich nectar are among the objects that are used are used to attract pollinators. Sepals are the leaf-like structures that protect the developing bud of a flower.

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