AP Art History : 2D Art

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Art History

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Example Questions

Example Question #31 : 2 D Art

The Lindisfarne Gospels are an important medieval work of art from which region?

Possible Answers:

The Byzantine Empire

The Roman Empire

The British Isles

The Baghdad Caliphate

Correct answer:

The British Isles

Explanation:

The Lindisfarne Gospels are highly detailed, illuminated manuscripts that are highly representative of Hiberno-Saxon Art. Also known as Insular Art, from the Latin for "island," the style of Art flourished in the British Isles between the decline of Roman Britain in 410 to the Norman Conquest in 1066. The Lindisfarne Gospels were created at the monastery of Lindisfarne in the Northern England Kingdom of Northumbria around the year 700.

Example Question #4 : Identifying Artists, Works, Or Schools Of Early Christian, Byzantine, And Early Medieval 2 D Art

Meister von san vitale in ravenna 003

The work of art shown here is an example of ________________.

Possible Answers:

a mosaic

a fresco

a bas-relief

a mural

Correct answer:

a mosaic

Explanation:

This work, known as The Justinian Panel, is placed on a wall inside the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy, depicting the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. Although the work is in Italy and Justinian was known as "the last Roman" for his desire to reclaim the territory of the Roman Empire, this work is classically Byzantine in composition, style, and especially in its use of mosaic. Mosaic is a work of art which is composed of small pieces of glass or stone placed together to form larger images and was widely used in the late Roman and Byzantine empires in large scale works.

Image accessed through Wikipedia Media Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emperor_Justinian_%26_entourage_in_St_Vitale,_Ravenna.JPG

Example Question #33 : 2 D Art

Meister von san vitale in ravenna 003

The work of art shown here is located in a ___________________.

Possible Answers:

public square

mausoleum

Christian church

royal palace

Correct answer:

Christian church

Explanation:

The Justinian Panel, depicting Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, is one of many mosaics placed around the Basilica of San Vitale in Rome, and is one of two depicting royalty, with the other featuring Justinian's wife Theodora. The mosaic is in one of the great Byzantine churches in Italy, which reflects Justinian's two main aims as Emperor: regaining the lost territory of the Western Roman Empire and reinforcing Christianity in the Mediterranean world.

Image accessed through Wikipedia Media Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emperor_Justinian_%26_entourage_in_St_Vitale,_Ravenna.JPG

Example Question #31 : Ap Art History

Examples of Christian art before the conversion of the Emperor Constantine in 312 CE are rare because __________.

Possible Answers:

Christians could not agree on depictions of Jesus in this era

Christians were heavily persecuted in this era

Christians did not want to spread their message in this era

Christians disdained all forms of art and literature in this era

Correct answer:

Christians were heavily persecuted in this era

Explanation:

The conversion of the Emperor Constantine in 312 CE at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge was a turning point for Christianity, as it began to move it from a persecuted religion to an official, state-sponsored one. The art of Christians before Constantine is little known today because of the widespread persecution, while most images of Jesus and the disciples only developed in the fourth and fifth centuries as Christianity became the Roman state religion.

Example Question #1 : Answering Other Questions About Early Christian, Byzantine, And Early Medieval 2 D Art

"Byzantine Iconoclasm" refers to a time period in the history of the Byzantine Empire when __________.

Possible Answers:

religious images were opposed by church leaders

depictions of saints became dramatically more lifelike

painting became the preferred method of showing religious images instead of mosaics

images of Jesus Christ were preferred to those of the Virgin Mary

Correct answer:

religious images were opposed by church leaders

Explanation:

The term "iconoclasm" in art generally refers to any attempts to ban religious imagery or iconography. In the Byzantine Empire, such a movement occurred in two separate waves, once in the eighth century and again in the early ninth century. This was particularly notable, as the Greek Orthodox Church had traditionally utilized icons in a variety of religious capacities.

Example Question #1 : Answering Other Questions About Early Christian, Byzantine, And Early Medieval 2 D Art

In medieval art, the holy spirit is often depicted as a(n) __________.

Possible Answers:

fish

dove

lion

angel

Correct answer:

dove

Explanation:

During the baptism of Jesus, all four gospels of the New Testament describe the holy spirit coming down from the heavens as "a bodily shape, like a dove on him." Because of the uniform description, this symbol became inextricably linked to the holy spirit and was used frequently in medieval art.

Example Question #3 : Answering Other Questions About Early Christian, Byzantine, And Early Medieval 2 D Art

In medieval iconography, the four evangelists (the authors attributed with writing the Gospels) are depicted as __________.

Possible Answers:

colored books

a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle

a fish, a dove, a man, and a lamb

angels with wings and halos

Correct answer:

a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle

Explanation:

The four evangelist symbols are the man (symbol for Matthew), the lion (symbol for Mark), the ox (symbol for Luke), and the eagle (symbol for John). These symbols have classical origins, though their use within Christian theology stems from the "four living creatures" that drew the throne-chariot of God in the Book of Ezekiel and later in the Book of Revelations. These four animals can be seen as a hierarchy of animal types (with man on top and bird on the bottom), but are also meant to represent the nature of Christ as well as the virtues needed for salvation.

Example Question #2 : Answering Other Questions About Early Christian, Byzantine, And Early Medieval 2 D Art

Of the following, which is NOT a biblical typology (or biblical foreshadowing/comparison) commonly depicted in medieval art?

Possible Answers:

God and Jesus as Abraham and Isaac

Jesus as David

Jesus as Jonah

Joseph as Adam

Correct answer:

Joseph as Adam

Explanation:

Biblical typologies refer to the practice of comparing Old Testament texts with New Testament text and speaking of the Old Testament as a foreshadowing of Christ's life and death in the New Testament. Often, as in medieval art, this comparison was done visually. Sometimes this typology could be taken one step further, and kings or other powerful contemporary figures might also be compared to biblical figures to assert their holiness.

Jonah is a biblical typology for Christ in that his three-day "entombment" in the belly of the whale and ultimate release from the belly was a foreshadowing of the death of Christ and his resurrection three days later. King David is a typology for Jesus because they are of the same lineage, but also because Jesus is the King of kings and Lord of lords and is thus seen as the "new David." Finally, the story of Abraham's near-sacrifice of his son, Isaac, is a typology for God's ultimate earthly sacrifice of his son, Jesus. Thus, there is no typology of Adam and Joseph. 

Example Question #1 : Answering Other Questions About Early Christian, Byzantine, And Early Medieval 2 D Art

Two events led to the flourishing of Byzantine art. The establishment of Constantinople in 330 created a Christian artistic center in the east. Before that, __________ finally allowed public Christian worship and expressions of faith. This development led to a new and thriving Christian artistic scene.

Possible Answers:

Theodosius II

Alexandria

the Edict of Milan

Theodosius I

Hagios Demetrios

Correct answer:

the Edict of Milan

Explanation:

The Edict of Milan was an agreement by Constantine I and Licinius that allowed for the fair and benevolent treatment of Christians residing within the Roman Empire. Although Christianity did not become the official religion of the Roman Empire, it did attain legal status and protection that it did not have before.

Example Question #1 : Answering Other Questions About Early Christian, Byzantine, And Early Medieval 2 D Art

Following the birth of the Russian Orthodox Church in the late tenth century, which eventually led Russia to be the new center of European Orthodox church, Russian icon painting principally developed as a direct imitation of __________.

Possible Answers:

the art of the Renaissance

Romanesque art

Gothic art

Byzantine art

Ancient Greek art

Correct answer:

Byzantine art

Explanation:

The Byzantine era ended with the Fall of Constantinople in 1453; however, by this time, Byzantine culture had spread into Russia and the surrounding areas, including the Balkans, taking with it Orthodox Christianity. After the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, Russia became the new center of the Orthodox church, and Russian icon painting took directly after the art and culture of the Byzantine Empire. It can be said that along with Orthodox Christianity, Russia inherited Byzantine culture and sensibilities as well.

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