Test: ACT Science

The significant increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since pre-industrial levels can be seen in the world’s oceans which absorb the CO2 and in turn undergo changes in chemistry. The consequences of increased CO2 include acidification of seawater and a decrease in carbonate ion (CO32-) concentration.

Changes in seawater chemistry affect marine organisms. The early life stages of invertebrates, such as squid, may be particularly vulnerable to changes in carbon dioxide levels. Acting as both predator and prey, squid are a significant component of marine ecosystems.   For example, fish and sea birds, such as tuna and albatross, are dependent on squid as a source of prey. Furthermore, the fishing industry is impacted by the health of squid populations. California fisheries produce the majority of market squid.

In order to determine how increased levels of carbon dioxide affect the development of squid, eggs were hatched in two different conditions: normal (380 µatm) and elevated (2100 µatm) levels of CO2. The time to hatch and the size of the larval mantle (the anatomical feature that includes the body wall and fins) were measured and recorded. Two trials were conducted for each carbon dioxide concentration.

 

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1.

Which of the following can be concluded from the passage?

Tuna and albatross populations are directly related 

Atmospheric CO2 levels correlate with the concentration of CO2 in the oceans

Carbon dioxide concentration correlates with ocean temperatures

Carbonate ion concentration correlates with ocean temperatures

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