ACT Science : How to find synthesis of data in chemistry

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ACT Science

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Chemistry

The Ideal Gas Law is as follows:

 is pressure as measured in Pascals,  is volume as measured in cubic meters,  is the number of moles of the gas,  is the gas constant known as 8.314 Joules per mole times Kelvin, and  is the temperature measured in Kelvin.

A class of students began studying the Ideal Gas Law and how the Pressure and the Volume relate to one another. They took 20 moles of a sample gas and kept the room at a temperature of 300 Kelvin. They then used different sized containers of the gas to limit and expand the volume. At each different volume, they measure the pressure of the gas on its container. The table they made from their results is seen in table 1.

 

Temperature in Kelvin

Pressure Measured in Pascals

 

 

200 Kelvin

16, 628 Pascals

400 Kelvin

33, 256 Pascals

600 Kelvin

49, 884 Pascals

800 Kelvin

66, 512 Pascals

TABLE 1

Img020

 

FIGURE 1

The graph the students made based on the data is seen in Figure 1.

Pressure is created by the movement of the gas molecules pushing against a container.  0 Kelvin is known as absolute 0, the temperature at which all molecule movement theoretically stops.

If the equation for converting Kelvin to degrees Fahrenheit is:

at what temperature Fahrenheit is the pressure

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

When the given number of Pascals is put into the Ideal Gas Law and solved for , the temperature given is 400 Kelvin.  When 400 Kelvin is put in the conversion equation, the degrees farenheit given is 260.6 degrees.

Example Question #121 : Chemistry

The Ideal Gas Law is as follows:

 is pressure as measured in Pascals,  is volume as measured in cubic meters,  is the number of moles of the gas,  is the gas constant known as 8.314 Joules per mole times Kelvin, and  is the temperature measured in Kelvin.

A class of students began studying the Ideal Gas Law and how the Pressure and the Volume relate to one another. They took 20 moles of a sample gas and kept the room at a temperature of 300 Kelvin. They then used different sized containers of the gas to limit and expand the volume. At each different volume, they measure the pressure of the gas on its container. The table they made from their results is seen in table 1.

 

Temperature in Kelvin

Pressure Measured in Pascals

 

 

200 Kelvin

16, 628 Pascals

400 Kelvin

33, 256 Pascals

600 Kelvin

49, 884 Pascals

800 Kelvin

66, 512 Pascals

TABLE 1

Img020

 

FIGURE 1

The graph the students made based on the data is seen in Figure 1.

Pressure is created by the movement of the gas molecules pushing against a container. 0 Kelvin is known as absolute 0, the temperature at which all molecule movement theoretically stops.

If the equation that converts temperature Kelvin to temperature in degrees Fahrenheit is

what is the pressure of the sample gas at the freezing point of water, which is 32 degrees Fahrenheit?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

To find the temperature Kelvin to which 32 degrees Fahrenheit correlates, the equation would look like this and one must solve for :

. Then, this temperature must be put into the Ideal Gas Law and solved for pressure:

Example Question #121 : Chemistry

The Ideal Gas Law is as follows:

               

 is pressure as measured in Pascals,  is volume as measured in cubic meters,  is the number of moles of the gas,  is the gas constant known as 8.314 Joules per mole times Kelvin, and  is the temperature measured in Kelvin.

A class of students began studying the Ideal Gas Law and how the Pressure and the Volume relate to one another. They took 20 moles of a sample gas and kept the room at a temperature of 300 Kelvin. They then used different sized containers of the gas to limit and expand the volume. At each different volume, they measure the pressure of the gas on its container. The table they made from their results is seen in table 1.

 

Volume of the container

Pressure Measured in Pascals

1 cubic meter

49,884 Pascals

2 cubic meters

24,942 Pascals

3 cubic meters

16,628 Pascals

4 cubic meters

12,471 Pascals

5 cubic meters

 9,976.8 Pascals

6 cubic meters

 8,314 Pascals

7 cubic meters

 7,126.2 Pascals

TABLE 1 

 

And they graph their findings in Firgure 1.

Img021

FIGURE 1

What would the pressure be if the volume was 100 cubic meters?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

One can plug 100 cubic meters into the equation, but the equation is measured in pascals.  To find it in the SI unit kilopascals, one must divide by 1000.  

Example Question #21 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Chemistry

Current high levels of fossil fuel use, including coal-burning power plants and gasoline-powered automobiles, have helped contribute to the high concentrations of sulfur trioxide, SO3, found in the atmosphere. When sulfur trioxide and water interact, they can undergo the following chemical reaction to produce sulfuric acid, which is the main contributor to acid rain worldwide: 

 

Acid rain showers are particularly common near coal-burning power plants and large cities. These showers are responsible for significant economic damage to sidewalks, roads, and buildings. Scientists interested in studying the effects of acid rain often use basic substances like calcium carbonate, the main component of limestone buildings, and expose them to varying volumes of acid rain to determine what volume of acid rain is necessary to begin to erode a building. A sample graph of one scientist’s experiment is replicated below:

 Passage_ii_-_main_passage

Measuring acid and base levels is commonly done with a scale called pH, which uses the concentration of hydrogen ions to determine the acidity. Hydrogen ions are in a balance with hydroxide ions to give a scale with a range from 0 to 14. Values equal to or between 0 and 6.9 represent the acidic range where hydrogen ions predominate and values equal to or ranging from 7.1 and 14 represent the basic range where hydroxide ions predominate. Thus, the more hydrogen ions present, the more acidic the solution.

Scientists can tell when a titration (pH) experiment passes a certain pH using compounds called indicators. Indicators are usually colorless at pH levels below that of their specified color change. A table of indicators used by the above scientists and the pH at which they change colors is presented below. 

Passage_ii_table

Solutions A, B, and C each contain a different number of hydroxide ions. Solution A has an intermediate number of hydroxide ion, while solution B has the most, and solution C the fewest. Place the solutions in order of increasing number of hydrogen ions.

Possible Answers:

A < B < C

C < B < A

B < A < C

C < A < B

Correct answer:

B < A < C

Explanation:

This question asks us to determine the relative order of three solutions with respect to their hydrogen ion number. The passage, particurarly the paragraph provided below the graph, tells us that when the hydrogen ion number is high, the hydroxide number is low. Thus a high number of hydroxide ions would give a low number of hydrogen ions. We can use this information to place the three solutions in order.

Example Question #21 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Chemistry

Current high levels of fossil fuel use, including coal-burning power plants and gasoline-powered automobiles, have helped contribute to the high concentrations of sulfur trioxide, SO3, found in the atmosphere. When sulfur trioxide and water interact, they can undergo the following chemical reaction to produce sulfuric acid, which is the main contributor to acid rain worldwide: 

 

Acid rain showers are particularly common near coal-burning power plants and large cities. These showers are responsible for significant economic damage to sidewalks, roads, and buildings. Scientists interested in studying the effects of acid rain often use basic substances like calcium carbonate, the main component of limestone buildings, and expose them to varying volumes of acid rain to determine what volume of acid rain is necessary to begin to erode a building. A sample graph of one scientist’s experiment is replicated below:

 Passage_ii_-_main_passage

Measuring acid and base levels is commonly done with a scale called pH, which uses the concentration of hydrogen ions to determine the acidity. Hydrogen ions are in a balance with hydroxide ions to give a scale with a range from 0 to 14. Values equal to or between 0 and 6.9 represent the acidic range where hydrogen ions predominate and values equal to or ranging from 7.1 and 14 represent the basic range where hydroxide ions predominate. Thus, the more hydrogen ions present, the more acidic the solution.

Scientists can tell when a titration (pH) experiment passes a certain pH using compounds called indicators. Indicators are usually colorless at pH levels below that of their specified color change. A table of indicators used by the above scientists and the pH at which they change colors is presented below. 

Passage_ii_table

Solutions A, B, and C each contain a different number of hydroxide ions. Solution A has a pH of 9.2, solution B has a pH of 10.3, and solution C has a pH of 7.3. Place the solutions in order of increasing number of hydroxide ions.

Possible Answers:

C < B < A

C < A < B

B < A < C

A < B < C

Correct answer:

C < A < B

Explanation:

This question provides us with the pH of a few solutions and asks us to determine the relative number of hydroxide ions present. Thus, we need to convert the pH into a general idea of the number of hydrogen ions and then understand the relationship between hydrogen and hydroxide. From the passage, we know that a low pH means an abundance of hydrogen ions. Additionally, we know that when the hydrogen ion number is high, the hydroxide ion number is low (the paragraph below the provided graph). Thus, we can use these two pieces of information to correctly order the solutions.

Example Question #22 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Chemistry

Current high levels of fossil fuel use, including coal-burning power plants and gasoline-powered automobiles, have helped contribute to the high concentrations of sulfur trioxide, SO3, found in the atmosphere. When sulfur trioxide and water interact, they can undergo the following chemical reaction to produce sulfuric acid, which is the main contributor to acid rain worldwide: 

 

Acid rain showers are particularly common near coal-burning power plants and large cities. These showers are responsible for significant economic damage to sidewalks, roads, and buildings. Scientists interested in studying the effects of acid rain often use basic substances like calcium carbonate, the main component of limestone buildings, and expose them to varying volumes of acid rain to determine what volume of acid rain is necessary to begin to erode a building. A sample graph of one scientist’s experiment is replicated below:

 Passage_ii_-_main_passage

Measuring acid and base levels is commonly done with a scale called pH, which uses the concentration of hydrogen ions to determine the acidity. Hydrogen ions are in a balance with hydroxide ions to give a scale with a range from 0 to 14. Values equal to or between 0 and 6.9 represent the acidic range where hydrogen ions predominate and values equal to or ranging from 7.1 and 14 represent the basic range where hydroxide ions predominate. Thus, the more hydrogen ions present, the more acidic the solution.

Scientists can tell when a titration (pH) experiment passes a certain pH using compounds called indicators. Indicators are usually colorless at pH levels below that of their specified color change. A table of indicators used by the above scientists and the pH at which they change colors is presented below. 

Passage_ii_table

A scientist wants to titrate a solution of sodium hydroxide at a pH of 14 with an acidic solution of phosporic acid at a pH of 10. She is attempting to create a solution that can mimic a basic environment. Which indicator would she likely use?

Possible Answers:

Isobutyl Terpine

Propyl Cyonate

Methyl Red

Cannot Be Determined

Correct answer:

Methyl Red

Explanation:

This questions asks us to use the provided table to determine which indicator would be useful for use in the proposed experiment. In order to determine which indicator our scientist should use, we need to know the meaning of basic. The information contained in the passage, namely the paragraph below the curved graph, allows us to determine that a basic solution is above a pH of 7. Thus, our scientist would want to titrate to a pH around 9.2 using methyl red.

Example Question #21 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Chemistry

Current high levels of fossil fuel use, including coal-burning power plants and gasoline-powered automobiles, have helped contribute to the high concentrations of sulfur trioxide, SO3, found in the atmosphere. When sulfur trioxide and water interact, they can undergo the following chemical reaction to produce sulfuric acid, which is the main contributor to acid rain worldwide: 

 

Acid rain showers are particularly common near coal-burning power plants and large cities. These showers are responsible for significant economic damage to sidewalks, roads, and buildings. Scientists interested in studying the effects of acid rain often use basic substances like calcium carbonate, the main component of limestone buildings, and expose them to varying volumes of acid rain to determine what volume of acid rain is necessary to begin to erode a building. A sample graph of one scientist’s experiment is replicated below:

 Passage_ii_-_main_passage

Measuring acid and base levels is commonly done with a scale called pH, which uses the concentration of hydrogen ions to determine the acidity. Hydrogen ions are in a balance with hydroxide ions to give a scale with a range from 0 to 14. Values equal to or between 0 and 6.9 represent the acidic range where hydrogen ions predominate and values equal to or ranging from 7.1 and 14 represent the basic range where hydroxide ions predominate. Thus, the more hydrogen ions present, the more acidic the solution.

Scientists can tell when a titration (pH) experiment passes a certain pH using compounds called indicators. Indicators are usually colorless at pH levels below that of their specified color change. A table of indicators used by the above scientists and the pH at which they change colors is presented below. 

Passage_ii_table

If a scientist wanted to determine roughly when 22 mL of phosphoric acid had been added to a solution of sodium hydroxide, he would likely choose which indicator? 

Possible Answers:

Propyl Cyonate

Cannot Be Determined

Methyl Red

Isobutyl Terpine

Correct answer:

Isobutyl Terpine

Explanation:

According to the graph provided, adding 22 mL of an acid to a sodium hydroxide solution gives a pH around 7. Thus, our scientist would want to use an indicator that works around that pH, namely isobutyl terpine.

Example Question #24 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Chemistry

Current high levels of fossil fuel use, including coal-burning power plants and gasoline-powered automobiles, have helped contribute to the high concentrations of sulfur trioxide, SO3, found in the atmosphere. When sulfur trioxide and water interact, they can undergo the following chemical reaction to produce sulfuric acid, which is the main contributor to acid rain worldwide: 

 

Acid rain showers are particularly common near coal-burning power plants and large cities. These showers are responsible for significant economic damage to sidewalks, roads, and buildings. Scientists interested in studying the effects of acid rain often use basic substances like calcium carbonate, the main component of limestone buildings, and expose them to varying volumes of acid rain to determine what volume of acid rain is necessary to begin to erode a building. A sample graph of one scientist’s experiment is replicated below:

 Passage_ii_-_main_passage

Measuring acid and base levels is commonly done with a scale called pH, which uses the concentration of hydrogen ions to determine the acidity. Hydrogen ions are in a balance with hydroxide ions to give a scale with a range from 0 to 14. Values equal to or between 0 and 6.9 represent the acidic range where hydrogen ions predominate and values equal to or ranging from 7.1 and 14 represent the basic range where hydroxide ions predominate. Thus, the more hydrogen ions present, the more acidic the solution.

Scientists can tell when a titration (pH) experiment passes a certain pH using compounds called indicators. Indicators are usually colorless at pH levels below that of their specified color change. A table of indicators used by the above scientists and the pH at which they change colors is presented below. 

Passage_ii_table

If a scientist wanted to determine roughly when 26 mL of phosphoric acid had been added to a solution of sodium hydroxide, he would likely choose which indicator? 

Possible Answers:

Isobutyl Terpine

Propyl Cyonate

Cannot Be Determined

Methyl Red

Correct answer:

Propyl Cyonate

Explanation:

The question asks us to predict the indicator chosed by our scientist in the experiment. Using the graph provided, we can see that the pH is somewhere around 4 when the required volume of acid is added. Thus, we would want to choose an indicator that works around this pH. Using the options provided in the chart, we would likely choose propyl cyonate.

Example Question #122 : Chemistry

The Ideal Gas Law is as follows:

               

 is pressure as measured in Pascals,  is volume as measured in cubic meters,  is the number of moles of the gas,  is the gas constant known as 8.314 Joules per mole times Kelvin, and  is the temperature measured in Kelvin.

 

A class of students began studying the Ideal Gas Law and how the Pressure and the Volume relate to one another.  They took 20 moles of a sample gas and kept the room at a temperature of 300 Kelvin.  They then used different sized containers of the gas to limit and expand the volume.  At each different volume, they measure the pressure of the gas on its container.  The table they made from their results is seen in table 1.

 

Volume of the container

Pressure Measured in Pascals

1 cubic meter

49,884 Pascals

2 cubic meters

24,942 Pascals

3 cubic meters

16,628 Pascals

4 cubic meters

12,471 Pascals

5 cubic meters

 9,976.8 Pascals

6 cubic meters

 8,314 Pascals

7 cubic meters

 7,126.2 Pascals

TABLE 1 

 

And they graph their findings in Firgure 1.

Img021

FIGURE 1

If the Kelvin temperature were to rise, what would happen to the pressure?

Possible Answers:

Pressure increases but only until Kelvin reaches 500, and then it decreases

Pressure increases

Pressure decreases

Pressure remains constant

The temperature has no predictable effect on the pressure because there are too many other variables

Correct answer:

Pressure increases

Explanation:

As the temperature increases, the pressure a gas puts on its container increases.  Warmer temperature means more molecule movement, which makes the pressure higher.  

Example Question #21 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Chemistry

A brilliant but underpaid high school chemistry teacher, together with his former student, manufactures a chemical compound, which they sell for a large mark-up. Their set of reactions are given below:

(1) A + B + C + acid --> D

(2) D --> intermediate

(3) Intermediate --> E

(4) E + acid --> X

His student notes the following observations:

Observation 1) If a greater amount of B and C are used in the reaction, this yields no increased amount of product D.

Observation 2) At any given point, D, the intermediate, and E may co-exist in equal proportions. However, at higher temperatures, higher proportions of product E are noted.

Observation 3) The addition of a strong base can reverse reaction 4.

 

 

Which of the following is true of the effects of temperature on reactions 2 and 3?

Possible Answers:

No relationship between heat, reaction 2, and reaction 3 can be concluded.

Regardless of the temperature, the intermediate is the most stable product.

Since at higher temperatures more of product E exists, reactions 2 and 3 can be considered endothermic (heat-needing).

Since at higher temperatures more of product E exists, reactions 2 and 3 can be considered exothermic (heat-producing).

Correct answer:

Since at higher temperatures more of product E exists, reactions 2 and 3 can be considered endothermic (heat-needing).

Explanation:

Observation 2 illustrates that at higher temperatures more of product E will exist. This suggests that heat may help drive the reaction forward, indicating that the reaction of D to intermediate to E is endothermic (needing heat). Not enough information is supplied to determine which product is the most stable; however, the fact that more of E exists at higher temperatures may also indicate that it is a more stable compound. Generally, a compound will take the most stable form at higher temperatures.

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