# 2nd Grade Science : Construct an argument using evidence

## Example Questions

### Example Question #1 : Construct An Argument Using Evidence

Heating and cooling is a process that can be reversed. I melted a popsicle and then put the popsicle back in the freezer, and it froze into a solid popsicle again. I did this multiple times, and it always worked. This is an argument based on evidence.

True

False

True

Explanation:

This argument is based on evidence. There is no personal opinion or thoughts involved in the statement. The popsicle investigation provides data to make conclusions from, so it is evidence-based and supported.

### Example Question #2 : Construct An Argument Using Evidence

Heating and cooling is a process that cannot be reversed. I had a candy bar in my pocket, and it melted. I was so angry that I had wasted it, so I threw it out. This is an argument based on evidence.

False

True

False

Explanation:

This argument is not based on evidence. There is personal opinion and personal thoughts involved in the statement. The candy bar incident was not scientific, there was no investigation or experiment in place, and the author put their ideas into the statement.

### Example Question #3 : Construct An Argument Using Evidence

Heating and cooling is a process that can be reversed. There can be scientific investigations or experiments completed to make this statement based on evidence.

True

False

True

Explanation:

This statement is true, and it can be backed up by evidence. An investigation or experiment can be conducted to determine more information and data can be collected to strengthen the argument.

### Example Question #4 : Construct An Argument Using Evidence

Which argument is constructed using evidence?

Some changes made to materials by heating or cooling them can be reversed. If you melt an ice cube, you can refreeze it, and it will be a solid again.

Some changes made to materials by heating or cooling them can be reversed because there is nothing in the world that cannot be undone or redone.

Some changes made to materials by heating or cooling them can be reversed. I think that my opinion is correct because I have thought about this for a long time.

Some changes made to materials by heating or cooling them can be reversed because once my science teacher told us that this was true.

Some changes made to materials by heating or cooling them can be reversed. I think that my opinion is correct because I have thought about this for a long time.

Explanation:

Three of the arguments listed include no evidence or personal opinion. The only statement that is based on scientific data or evidence is, "Some changes made to materials by heating or cooling them can be reversed. If you melt an ice cube, you can refreeze it, and it will be a solid again.". This statement mentions an example of an experiment that can be conducted, and evidence can be collected.

### Example Question #5 : Construct An Argument Using Evidence

Which statement is constructed using evidence?

Heating and cooling is a process that can be reversed. I melted a popsicle and then put the popsicle back in the freezer, and it froze into a solid popsicle again. I did this multiple times, and it always worked. This is an argument based on evidence.

Heating and cooling is a process that can be reversed. I bought popsicles at the grocery store, and they melted in the car. This is an argument based on evidence.

Heating and cooling is a process that can be reversed. I bought popsicles at the grocery store and put them in the freezer. This is an argument based on evidence.

Heating and cooling is a process that can be reversed. I ate a popsicle. I did this multiple times. This is an argument based on evidence.

Heating and cooling is a process that can be reversed. I melted a popsicle and then put the popsicle back in the freezer, and it froze into a solid popsicle again. I did this multiple times, and it always worked. This is an argument based on evidence.

Explanation:

The statement that is constructed using evidence includes no personal opinions or statements and has scientific evidence to support the claim. "Heating and cooling is a process that can be reversed. I melted a popsicle and then put the popsicle back in the freezer, and it froze into a solid popsicle again. I did this multiple times, and it always worked. This is an argument based on evidence." This statement shows that the investigation was repeated multiple times, and information was recorded.

### Example Question #6 : Construct An Argument Using Evidence

I melted a crayon and then put the crayon in the refrigerator, and it did not form back into the crayon shape, just a hard pile of colored wax. I did this multiple times, and it always happened the same way. I think heating can be reversed. This is an argument based on evidence.

False

True

True

Explanation:

This argument is based on evidence. There is no personal opinion or thoughts involved in the statement. The popsicle investigation provides data to make conclusions from, so it is evidence-based and supported.

### Example Question #7 : Construct An Argument Using Evidence

Which argument is constructed using evidence?

I don't think heating can be reversed because I have never seen it happen.

Heating and cooling can be reversed because ponds freeze and unfreeze every year.

Cooling cannot be reversed because it is always freezing outside.

Arguments cannot be made with evidence.

Heating and cooling can be reversed because ponds freeze and unfreeze every year.

Explanation:

The statement that is constructed using evidence includes no personal opinions or statements and has scientific evidence to support the claim. "Heating and cooling can be reversed because ponds freeze and unfreeze every year." This statement is based on evidence that can be recorded each year and studied.

### Example Question #8 : Construct An Argument Using Evidence

Becca says that some heating changes can be reversed. She gives the example of melting butter. She says that you can turn a solid piece of butter into a liquid and then turn it back to a solid. Her friend Melva disagrees and says butter cannot be changed back and forth.

Is this an argument that can be settled with evidence?

No; Becca has stated a fact that cannot be disputed or tested

Yes; they could both eat butter and see what happens

Yes; they could complete an experiment to collect evidence

No; Melva has stated a fact that cannot be disputed or tested

Yes; they could complete an experiment to collect evidence

Explanation:

This is an argument that could be settled with evidence. The girls are arguing if heating and cooling is a process that can be reversed with butter as an example. The girls could test the butter by melting it and seeing if they can turn it back to solids. They could collect information during the investigation to help decide who is correct.

### Example Question #9 : Construct An Argument Using Evidence

Today Patrick and Annie's mother made French toast for breakfast. She asks them if the changes to the bread can be reversed or not. Annie says the changes cannot be reversed, and Patrick says the changes can be reversed. How could the kids determine who is correct?

Perform an experiment

Investigate and collect information

Research heating and cooling changes

All of the answer choices are correct

All of the answer choices are correct

Explanation:

Annie and Patrick could use any of the answer choices to determine who is correct. They could perform an investigation or experiment and collect information. They also can research heating and cooling changes to determine if someone else has discovered an answer to their question. All of these actions could help the siblings collect evidence about the topic.

### Example Question #10 : Construct An Argument Using Evidence

Today is the 4th of July, and Sammie's dad celebrated with fireworks. He lit them in the yard for everyone to see. His dad asks them if the changes made to the fireworks can be reversed or not. Sammie says the changes cannot be reversed, and his dad says the changes can be reversed. How can Sammie's dad prove the changes can be reversed?

Return the firework to its original state

Get new fireworks to light

Take photos of the fireworks to study

Tell Sammie he is an adult so he's right