World History : Revolutions in South America

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for World History

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Revolutions In South America

Which South American country was the first to see Spanish forces driven away?

Possible Answers:

Brazil

Bolivia

Argentina

Colombia

Peru

Correct answer:

Colombia

Explanation:

Simon Bolivar succeeded in defeating Spanish forces on August 10, 1820 in Bogota, marking the first independent nation called Gran Colombia. While uprisings against Spanish presence in South America occurred earlier in the 19th century, the taking of Bogota marked the first time that the viceroyalty capital and control was in the hands of South Americans. In the subsequent years, other nations in South America followed suite and gained independence. 

Example Question #2 : Revolutions In South America

Which was the defining battle for Ecuador's independence? 

Possible Answers:

Battle of Pichincha

Battle of Guayaquil

Battle of Caracas

Battle of Ayacucho

Battle of Boyaca

Correct answer:

Battle of Pichincha

Explanation:

In 1822, forces led by General Antonio Jose de Sucre defeated Spanish forces near Quito, which guaranteed Ecuador's independence. Although Guayaquil gained independence before the Battle of Pichincha, it was this battle that saw the whole country become independent. After the battle, Ecuador joined Gran Colombia until separating in 1830. 

Example Question #3 : Revolutions In South America

Which South American independence leader became the first president of Bolivia?

Possible Answers:

Simon Bolivar

Pedro I

Miguel Hidalgo

Antonio Jose de Sucre

Jose de San Martin

Correct answer:

Simon Bolivar

Explanation:

In 1824, Simon Bolivar led decisive victories against the Spanish forces in Peru in Junin and Ayacucho. In August of 1825, the Congress of Upper Peru, the Republic of Bolivia was established with Bolivar as its first president. After a brief several months as President, Bolivar was succeeded by Antonio Jose de Sucre in December of 1825. 

Example Question #4 : Revolutions In South America

Who was the military and political leader that helped overthrow Spanish rule in Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru?

Possible Answers:

George Washington

Simon Bolivar

King Ferdinand II

Moctezuma II

Pablo Escobar

Correct answer:

Simon Bolivar

Explanation:

Simon Bolivar was from a wealthy Creole family and he was one of the major leaders in the revolutions that created all of the above nations, so he would be the best choice. Moctezuma II was the ruler of the Aztecs when the Spanish arrived, so he would not be a good answer to this question. George Washington was a revolutionary general but he was only active in the modern United States, so he would not be a good answer here. King Ferdinand II was an Old World monarch and sponsored Christopher Columbus's voyage, so he would not be the best choice here. Lastly Pablo Escobar was an infamous 20th century drug smuggler, so he would not be a correct answer.

Example Question #5 : Revolutions In South America

Juan Peron's, president of Argentina, running platform included which one of these positions?

Possible Answers:

Allowing foreign investments

Limiting multinational corporations

Giving tax cuts to the wealthy

Repressing the organization of labor

Correct answer:

Limiting multinational corporations

Explanation:

Juan Peron was a champion of the working class and his platform exemplified this. He was in favor of ridding the country of multinational corporations and giving the jobs, that he believed they had taken, back to the Argentinian people. He therefore was in favor of organized labor and wished to keep foreign investors out of the country. He also did not believe in giving tax cuts to the wealthy.

Example Question #6 : Revolutions In South America

Which of the following South American countries did NOT become a Republic after its independence?

Possible Answers:

Brazil

Peru

Argentina

Chile

Correct answer:

Brazil

Explanation:

Due to Napoleon's conquest, the Portuguese royal family had already moved to Brazil, setting up the path towards independence with the establishment of the Empire of Brazil in 1822.

Example Question #7 : Revolutions In South America

What was the first South American country to achieve independence from Spanish colonialism?

Possible Answers:

Bolivia

Colombia

Ecuador

Peru

Venezuela

Correct answer:

Venezuela

Explanation:

Venezuela declared its independence from Spain on July 5, 1811. It was the first country to do so during the general Spanish American Wars for Independence that occurred between 1810 to 1823. The collapse of the Spanish Monarchy in 1808 led to a power vacuum in South America that allowed several colonies to move to independence. Even though Venezuela declared its independence in 1811, the last Spanish Loyalist forces did not stop fighting until 1823. 

Example Question #8 : Revolutions In South America

Defeat of the Spanish at what battle essentially guaranteed Ecuadorian independence in 1822?

Possible Answers:

Battle of Ayacucho

Battle of Maipu

Battle of Bogota

Battle of Pichincha

Battle of Caracas

Correct answer:

Battle of Pichincha

Explanation:

The Battle of Pichincha was the final battle on the Ecuadorian rebels' advance to Quito. It was the culmination of Ecuador's struggle for independence that started in 1820. Even before conflict began, Spanish Loyalist forces were already on the retreat throughout the continent. Thus, Ecuador's fight for independence was shorter and less bloody than other conflicts on the continent. The Battle itself occurred over 3,500 meters above sea level on the slopes of the Pichincha volcano. Victory by General Antonio Jose de Sucre allowed the rebels to enter Quito, in effect guaranteeing the formation of Ecuador as an independent country.  

Example Question #9 : Revolutions In South America

What 1824 defeat of the Spanish resulted in the independence of Peru, and essentially guaranteed the independence of the rest of South America as it resulted in the complete surrender of the major Royalist army?

Possible Answers:

Battle of Maipu

Battle of Bogota

Battle of Carabo

Battle of Ayacucho

Battle of Pichincha

Correct answer:

Battle of Ayacucho

Explanation:

The Battle of Ayacucho was the last great battle of the South American wars for independence. Peruvian rebels led by Jose Antonio de Sucre (the same general from the Battle of Pichincha crushed the remnants of Royalist control of Peru. Although the battle occurred in Peru, it also resulted in the formation of the nation of Bolivia, which incorporated parts of Upper Peru that had been led by Simon Bolivar. 

Example Question #10 : Revolutions In South America

Simon Bolivar took advantage of which European conflict to encourage independence from Spain for Latin America?

Possible Answers:

War of 1812

War of the Roses

Gunboat War

Hundred Years' War

Peninsular War

Correct answer:

Peninsular War

Explanation:

Bolivar began his efforts to encourage revolution a year after the Peninsular War began in 1807. The Peninsular War was a conflict between France, the United Kingdom, Portugal, and the Bourbon and Bonapartist Spanish forces. By 1821, Bolivar had helped Venezuela secure its independence.

Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors

Incompatible Browser

Please upgrade or download one of the following browsers to use Instant Tutoring: