TOEIC : Use of Evidence

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for TOEIC

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Use Of Evidence

What is an Insect? When we remember that the insects alone comprise four-fifths of the animal kingdom, and that there are upwards of 200,000 living species, it would seem a hopeless task to define what an insect is. But a common plan pervades the structure of them all. The bodies of all insects consist of a succession of rings, or segments, more or less hardened by the deposition of a chemical substance called chitine; these rings are arranged in three groups: the head, the thorax or middle body, and the abdomen or hind body. In the six-footed insects, such as the bee, moth, beetle or dragon fly, four of these rings unite early in embryonic life to form the head; the thorax consists of three, as may be readily seen on slight examination, and the abdomen is composed either of ten or eleven rings. The body, then, seems divided or insected into three regions, whence the name insect.

Adapted from Our Common Insects: A Popular Account of the Insects of our Fields, Forests, Gardens and Houses. By A. S. Packard, Jr. (1873)

Why does the author argue that it is hard to define insects?

Possible Answers:

Because they are misunderstood

Because they have no common structure

Because they are so numerous

Because they are so small 

Correct answer:

Because they are so numerous

Explanation:

The correct answer is "because they are so numerous." The author begins the passage by stating that insects make up 4/5 of the animal kingdom, of which there are more than 200,000 living species. That would mean that around 160,000 of the are insect species. The author does not mention that they are small or misunderstood. The author explicitly states that insects have a common structure, which makes that answer choice incorrect. 

Example Question #2 : Use Of Evidence


"What am I going to do without you, Marjorie?" Mary Raymond's blue eyes looked suspiciously misty as she solemnly regarded her chum.

"What am I going to do without you, you mean," corrected Marjorie Dean, with a wistful smile. "Please, please don't let's talk of it. I simply can't bear it."

"One, two—only two more weeks now," sighed Mary. "You'll surely write to me, Marjorie?"

"Of course, silly girl," returned Marjorie, patting her friend's arm affectionately. "I'll write at least once a week."

Adapted from Marjorie Dean: High School Freshman, by Pauline Lester (1917)

Which of the following lines from the passage provide evidence a strong friendship?

Possible Answers:

"Mary Raymond's blue eyes looked suspiciously misty as she solemnly regarded her chum."

All of the other choices

"What am I going to do without you, Marjorie?" 

"Of course, silly girl," returned Marjorie, patting her friend's arm affectionately. "I'll write at least once a week."

Correct answer:

All of the other choices

Explanation:

The correct answer is "all of the other choices." All of the answer choices contain details that show how affectionate the relationship between the two girls is. Their words and actions all provide evidence of how strong their friendship is, and how much the girls care for each other. Therefore, the best choice is "all of the other choices."

Example Question #3 : Use Of Evidence

      Japan is a very beautiful country. It is full of fine mountains, with rivers leaping down the steep slopes and dashing over the rocks in snowy waterfalls. At the foot of the hills are rich plains and valleys, well watered by the streams which rush down from the hills. But the mountains are so many and the plains are so few that only a small part of the land can be used for growing crops, and this makes Japan poor. Its climate is not unlike ours in Great Britain, but the summer is hotter, and the winter is in some parts very cold. Many of the mountains are volcanoes. Some of these are still active, and earthquakes often take place. Sometimes these earthquakes do terrible harm. The great earthquake of 1871 killed 10,000 people, injured 20,000, and destroyed 130,000 houses.

      The highest mountain of Japan also is the most beautiful, and it is greatly beloved by the Japanese, who regard it as a sacred height. Its name is Fujisan, or Fusi-Yama, and it stands near the sea and the capital city of Tokyo. It is of most beautiful shape, an almost perfect cone, and it springs nearly 13,000 feet into the air. From the sea it forms a most superb and majestic sight. Long before a glimpse can be caught of the shore and the city, the traveller sees the lofty peak, crowned with a glittering crest of snow, rising in lonely majesty, with no hint of the land on which it rests. The Japanese have a great love of natural beauty, and they adore Fujisan. Their artists are never tired of painting it, and pictures of it are to be found in the most distant parts of the land.

Adapted from Peeps at Many Lands: Japan, by John Finnemore (1919)

Which of the following ideas from the passage is evidence that the Japanese people love natural beauty?

Possible Answers:

[Fujisan] is of most beautiful shape, an almost perfect cone, and it springs nearly 13,000 feet into the air. 

The great earthquake of 1871 killed 10,000 people, injured 20,000, and destroyed 130,000 houses.

At the foot of the hills are rich plains and valleys, well watered by the streams which rush down from the hills.

Artists are never tired of painting [Fujisan], and pictures of it are to be found in the most distant parts of the land.

Correct answer:

Artists are never tired of painting [Fujisan], and pictures of it are to be found in the most distant parts of the land.

Explanation:

The correct answer is "Artists are never tired of painting [Fujisan], and pictures of it are to be found in the most distant parts of the land." This is evidence of the people's love for the mountain; they paint it so often that it images of it have spread all of over the nation. The other answer choices are details that are unrelated to the people's love of natural beauty, or are statements that reflect the opinion of the author. For those reasons, the best choice is "Artists are never tired of painting [Fujisan], and pictures of it are to be found in the most distant parts of the land." 

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