SSAT Upper Level Verbal : Cause and Effect

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SSAT Upper Level Verbal

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Cause And Effect

Complete this analogy.

Gerrymander is to divide as filibuster is to __________.

Possible Answers:

Holdup 

Establish 

Solidify 

Campaign

Determine 

Correct answer:

Holdup 

Explanation:

Gerrymandering is the process by which electoral areas are divided to manipulate the political process; therefore, in order to solve this analogy you have to determine what purpose a filibuster serves in the political process. A filibuster is an extended speech given to delay, or holdup, the passage of a bill.

Example Question #2 : Cause And Effect

Complete this analogy.

Censor is to obscene as __________.

Possible Answers:

book is to text

type is to mendacious

retract is to incorrect

raze is to build

hardware is to software

Correct answer:

retract is to incorrect

Explanation:

"Obscene" is an adjective that means offensive and indecent. "Censor," when used as a verb, means officially suppress aspects of a text or work of art for being perceived as offensive. So, something that is obscene has a high likelihood of being censored, and we need to pick out an answer choice in which the second word is an adjective, and the first word is a verb describing what would likely be done to something that adjective describes. Only two answer choices include a verb followed by an adjective: "retract is to incorrect" and "type is to mendacious." While "type is to mendacious" might look like a potentially correct answer, "mendacious" means lying or not truthful. Since there is no clear connection between typing something and the thing typed being untrue, "type is to mendacious" cannot be not the correct answer. "Retract is to incorrect" is the correct answer because just as if something is obscene it is likely to be censored, if something is incorrect it is likely to be retracted, or withdrawn due to it being untrue.

Example Question #3 : Cause And Effect

Complete this analogy.

Accolade is to proud as __________.

Possible Answers:

car is to automotive

dinner is to hungry

limber is to stretch

threat is to afraid

melody is to song

Correct answer:

threat is to afraid

Explanation:

"Accolade" is a noun that means an earned award of merit, so one is likely to be proud when one receives an accolade. So, we need to pick out an answer choice in which the second word describes an emotion one might feel when experiencing or receiving what the first word describes. "Dinner is to hungry" might look like a potentially correct answer because like "accolade to proud," it consists of a noun followed by an adjective describing an emotion. However, one would not expect to feel hungry after receiving a dinner, so it cannot be the correct answer. "Threat is to afraid" is the best answer choice because just as one might be expected to feel proud after receiving an accolade, one might expect to feel afraid when receiving a threat.

Example Question #4 : Cause And Effect

Complete this analogy.

Sleepwalk is to asleep as __________.

Possible Answers:

clumsy is to stumble

fly is to wings

eat is to thirsty

give up is to optimistic

rest is to exhausted

Correct answer:

rest is to exhausted

Explanation:

“Sleepwalk” is a verb that means walk around while sleeping, so someone who is asleep might sleepwalk. That means that we need to pick out an answer choice in which the first word is a verb, and the second word an adjective describing a condition under which someone might perform the verb’s action. While “rest is to exhausted,” “give up is to optimistic,” and “eat is to thirsty” might each look like a potentially correct answer, “eat is to thirsty” cannot be the correct answer because “thirsty” means needing to drink something, so we would not necessarily expect someone who is thirsty to eat anything. Similarly, “give up is to optimistic” cannot be the correct answer either, because “optimistic” means hopeful, so we would not expect someone who is optimistic to give up. However, we could logically expect someone who is exhausted (drained of energy) to rest, just as we might expect someone who is asleep to sleepwalk, so “rest is to exhausted” is the correct answer.

Example Question #5 : Cause And Effect

Complete this analogy.

Flammable is to burnt as frangible is to __________.

Possible Answers:

shattered

delicious

shards

justified

vase

Correct answer:

shattered

Explanation:

An object that is "flammable" can catch on fire, and if something catches on fire, a result is that it becomes burnt afterwards. Since "frangible" means able to be broken, we need to select an answer choice that describes the state of an object after it breaks. We know we need an adjective, which eliminates "shards" and "vase" as possibilities, and of "shattered," "delicious," and "justified," "shattered" is the only option that has anything to do with breaking, so it is the correct answer, since breaking something can result in it being shattered.

Example Question #6 : Cause And Effect

Complete this analogy.

Inflame is to angry as mortify is to __________.

Possible Answers:

tired

happy

sad

embarassed

calm

Correct answer:

embarassed

Explanation:

“Inflame” is a verb that means provoke someone, often making them angry, so inflaming someone could logically make them angry. We need to pick out an answer that describes how someone might feel after being mortified. “Mortify” is a verb that means embarass someone greatly, so “embarrassed” is the correct answer.

Example Question #7 : Cause And Effect

Complete this analogy.

Drowsy is to sedative as energetic is to __________.

Possible Answers:

stimulant

lethargic

medicine 

tranquilizer

soporific 

Correct answer:

stimulant

Explanation:

A sedative is something you might use in order to make you feel "drowsy," or tired; therefore, in order to solve this analogy you must find which answer choice would most likely be used to make someone feel energetic. The correct answer is "stimulant," which is something that provides energy. A "tranquilizer" would have the same affect as a sedative; "soporific "means causing sleepiness; and "lethargic" means lacking energy.

Example Question #8 : Cause And Effect

Complete this analogy.

Pleasure is to beam as pain is to __________.

Possible Answers:

smile 

discomfort

expression

scream

grimace 

Correct answer:

grimace 

Explanation:

A "beam" can be defined as to smile or a smile, with a smile being an expression of pleasure. To solve this analogy, you must therefore identify which answer choice is an expression of pain. This should lead you to the correct answer, “grimace,” which means a contorted facial expression expressing disgust or pain.

Example Question #9 : Cause And Effect

Complete this analogy.

Study is to erudite as __________.

Possible Answers:

glasses are to sight

plains are to gazelle

exercise is to fit

sleep is to tired

electricity is to lightning

Correct answer:

exercise is to fit

Explanation:

"Erudite" is an adjective that means knowledgeable and learned. If one studies, one can become erudite, so we're looking for an answer in which the first word is a verb that describes what one can do to have the second word, an adjective, describe them. While "sleep is to tired" may look like a possible answer because you sleep when you are tired, one does not sleep to become tired, so it can't be the right answer. "Exercise is to fit," on the other hand, fits the pattern we're looking for, because if one exercises, one can become fit. Because of this, "exercise is to fit" is the correct answer.

Example Question #82 : Part/Whole, Part/Part, Example/Category, And Cause/Effect

Complete this analogy.

Coffee is to lethargy as __________.

Possible Answers:

exercise is to strength

fasting is to hunger

deodorant is to body odor

medicine is to a cold

tea is to headaches

Correct answer:

deodorant is to body odor

Explanation:

The relationship here is of cure to malady. Coffee is a cure for lethargy. Fasting is not a cure for hunger, so we can rule that one out. Exercise is not a cure for strength. If anything, it is probably a cure for weakness, so we can rule that one out, too. We can also rule out the answer choice, "Tea is to headaches," because tea is not necessarily a cure for headaches. That leaves us with two choices. The best one is "Deoderant is to body odor," because deoderant is always a cure for body odor. Medicine is only occasionally a cure for a cold.

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