SAT II World History : The Crusades

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #4 : Southwest Asia

The First Crusade was initiated by __________.

Possible Answers:

Pope Alexander VI

Pope Adrian IV

Pope Urban II 

Pope Gregory VII

Pope Innocent II

Correct answer:

Pope Urban II 

Explanation:

The First Crusade was initiated by Pope Urban II in 1095 with the original aim of assisting the Byzantine Empire in defending itself against the invading Turkish forces; however, the mission quickly expanded to include liberating the Holy City of Jerusalem from under Muslim control. Jerusalem was “liberated” in 1099, but this incident would mark several hundred years of competition between the Christian forces of Europe and the Islamic forces of the Near East that are collectively called “the Crusades.”

Example Question #5 : Southwest Asia

Which of these Popes is best remembered for initiating the First Crusade?

Possible Answers:

Pope Clement III

Pope Alexander IV

Pope Innocent III

Pope Alexander VI

Pope Urban II

Correct answer:

Pope Urban II

Explanation:

The First Crusades were initiated by Pope Urban II in 1095 with the primary goal of retaking the Holy Land and Jerusalem from the "infidels." 

Example Question #6 : Southwest Asia

The armies of the First Crusade were made up primarily of __________ soldiers.

Possible Answers:

Greek

German

Spanish

French

Italian

Correct answer:

French

Explanation:

The armies of the First Crusade was made up primarily of young French soldiers and nobles.

Example Question #7 : Southwest Asia

What was the primary goal of the Crusades? 

Possible Answers:

To remove Arab influence from the Iberian Peninsula

To remove Ottoman influence from the Balkans

To protect the interests of the Byzantine Empire

To retake the Holy Land for Christendom

To protect Venetian trading interests in the Mediterranean

Correct answer:

To retake the Holy Land for Christendom

Explanation:

The Crusades is the name given to a series of conflicts between Christian Europe and the Islamic Empire of the Near Middle East between the eleventh and fourteenth Centuries. The primary goal of the Crusades was to retake the city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land of Palestine from the "infidels." It had varying degrees of success. 

Example Question #8 : Southwest Asia

In what way did the Crusades primarily contribute to the growing wealth of Italian city states like Venice and Florence?

Possible Answers:

The Crusades led to an alliance between the Italian city-states and the Muslim Caliphate that increased the wealth and combined knowledge of both parties immensely. 

The Crusades provided a host of slaves to use for manual labor in the development of infrastructure in the Italian city-states. 

The cities captured in the Crusades needed constant resupplying from the merchant ships of the Italian city-states.

The Crusades provided plunder that was shipped back to the Italian city-states and and knowledge that was shared with their populations. 

None of these answers is correct; the Crusades contributed to the decline of the Italian city-states. 

Correct answer:

The cities captured in the Crusades needed constant resupplying from the merchant ships of the Italian city-states.

Explanation:

The First Crusade was able to successfully take Jerusalem and a few other isolated areas of the Holy Land, but the people who remained there were alone in a large area surrounded by hostile Arab enemies. They required constant resupplying from the trading ships of the Italian city-states, who subsequently grew immensely wealthy from the trading relationship.

Example Question #9 : Southwest Asia

The Third Crusade began when the forces of __________ conquered Jerusalem.

Possible Answers:

Harun al-Rashid

Saladin

Suleiman the Magnificent

Mehmet II

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Correct answer:

Saladin

Explanation:

The Holy Land and Jerusalem, captured in the First Crusade, were conquered by the Islamic forces of Saladin in 1187 CE. This led directly to the Third Crusade, waged from 1189 to 1192 CE, which did not result in the European forces retaking Jerusalem; however, it did lead Saladin to open the city of Jerusalem to protected Christian pilgrimage.

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