SAT II World History : Rise of Christianity

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #6 : Global Developments

Why is Charles Martel considered significant to the rise of Christianity in Europe? 

Possible Answers:

He wrote extensively on theology and spread Christianity around the British Isles and Scandinavia.

His armies halted the advance of Islam into France.

He retook the Holy Land during the First Crusade and defended it against Muslim invasion.

His armies halted the advance of Islam into Spain.

He ensured the continuation of the Papacy when he took his armies to defend Rome from barbarian conquest.

Correct answer:

His armies halted the advance of Islam into France.

Explanation:

Charles Martel was the ruler of the Frankish people in the early eighth century C.E. He is most famous for defending the realms of Christendom from Islamic invasion in 732 C.E. when he won the Battle of Tours. Islamic armies never reached further north than Spain in Western Europe. Without Martel's victory, it is very possible that all of Europe would eventually have been Islamic instead of Christianity, and the whole history of the world would be very different.

Example Question #5 : Global Developments

Pope Gregory VII banned lay investiture because __________.

Possible Answers:

it threatened to undermine the legitimacy of the Holy Roman Emperor

it allowed church officials to pardon the sins of rich people in exchange for bribes

it served to highlight the intolerable conditions of the peasantry

it allowed the Holy Roman Emperor to appoint church officials

it prevented the Papal States from trading with the rest of the Italian city states

Correct answer:

it allowed the Holy Roman Emperor to appoint church officials

Explanation:

Lay investiture is the name given to the common medieval practice whereby the Holy Roman Emperor, or another secular ruler, would appoint church officials without the consent of the Papacy. Gregory VII saw this as a challenge to his rule and banned the practice. He also subsequently excommunicated Emperor Henry IV when he ignored this rule. 

Example Question #6 : Global Developments

The split between Western and Eastern Christianity was formalized with the excommunication of the Patriarch of Constantinople in which century?

Possible Answers:

The eleventh century

The ninth century

The seventh century

The tenth century

The eighth century

Correct answer:

The eleventh century

Explanation:

The schism between Eastern and Western Christianity had been developing for several decades before it was finally formalized in 1054 (the eleventh century) with the excommunication of the Patriarch of Constantinople by Pope Leo IX. From this point on, Christianity was divided between a Catholic West and an Orthodox East. The main cause of the schism was the centralizing and autocratic power of the Papacy in the eleventh century, which was challenged by the imperial power of Constantinople. This was the first of many subsequent divisions of Christianity that have occurred in the centuries since.

Example Question #131 : Sat Subject Test In World History

Simony is the practice of __________.

Possible Answers:

waiting until adulthood to be baptized 

refuting the authority of the Pope on both secular and spiritual matters

marrying while being a member of the clergy 

pardoning sins in exchange for money 

selling positions in the Catholic church

Correct answer:

selling positions in the Catholic church

Explanation:

Simony is the practice of selling (or buying) positions in the Catholic Church. Although technically forbidden under church canon law, it was nonetheless extremely common throughout the early medieval period. It was an important part of various controversies throughout the Medieval period and contributed to the loss of faith, among certain parts of the European population, in the Catholic Church.

Example Question #8 : Global Developments

The Spanish Inquisition was originally intended to __________.

Possible Answers:

prosecute and punish Protestants in the Spanish Netherlands

determine the legitimacy of Jews and Muslims claiming to be converting to Christianity

prosecute and punish Protestants within the Spanish Empire

torture and execute heretics within the Catholic faith

replace Catholicism with Calvinism in Spanish territories in Europe

Correct answer:

determine the legitimacy of Jews and Muslims claiming to be converting to Christianity

Explanation:

The Spanish Inquisition was founded in 1478 by the significant Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella. It was originally intended to judge the legitimacy of those Jews and Muslims who rather than choosing to flee Spain (both groups were banished from the country) instead opted to convert to Christianity. The Inquisition was set up to determine if these conversions were false or not. Later, the Inquisition morphed into a device to wield state power and ensure uniformity of religion through torture and execution. Contrary to popular belief, it was rarely used within Spain to torture Protestants simply because there were so few Protestants in Spain. The Spanish Inquisition would last, in some form or another, until the early nineteenth century.

Example Question #132 : Sat Subject Test In World History

During the medieval era, the Eastern Orthodox Church was centered in the __________ empire.

Possible Answers:

Byzantine 

Ottoman

Russian 

Abbasid 

Polish 

Correct answer:

Byzantine 

Explanation:

During the medieval era the Eastern Orthodox Church was centered in the Byzantine Empire. The Patriarch of Constantinople was considered the leader of Eastern Orthodoxy. Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

Example Question #1 : Rise Of Christianity

Which of these Popes is generally credited with founding the medieval Papacy and bringing the spiritual authority of the Papacy into the secular arena?

Possible Answers:

Urban I

Urban II

Alexander II

Gregory I

Boniface II

Correct answer:

Gregory I

Explanation:

Pope Gregory I served as Pope from 590 C.E. to 604 C.E. He is one of the most significant and revered Popes in the history of the Catholic Church. His writings, of which there were many, continue to be influential to this day. He is considered by most scholars to be the founder of the medieval Papacy and the man who ensured the continued power of the Pope, by transferring his spiritual authority into a more secular role. He was the first Pope to take an active role in the political life of Europe and laid the foundations for the behavior of countless Popes that followed.

Example Question #134 : Sat Subject Test In World History

The Great Schism of Christianity, in the eleventh century CE, involved _________________.

Possible Answers:

the fracturing of Christianity into Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy

the fracturing of Christianity into Catholicism and Protestantism 

the assassination of the sitting Pope and the installation of a Papacy friendly to the Holy Roman Empire 

the end of religious persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire 

a split in the theological teachings of Martin Luther and John Calvin 

Correct answer:

the fracturing of Christianity into Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy

Explanation:

The Great Schism of Christianity, sometimes called the East-West Schism, took place in 1054 C.E. It involved the fracture of Christianity between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. The dispute arose over different interpretations of scripture between two of the major centers of Christian theology - the Vatican and Constantinople. After the Great Schism Catholicism continued to be centered in Vatican City and Eastern Orthodoxy was centered in Constantinople.

Example Question #135 : Sat Subject Test In World History

Early Christian "apologetics" were primarily concerned with __________________

Possible Answers:

defending the veracity of the Christian faith

attacking the structure of the Jewish faith

establishing a universal Christian church

demonizing the adherents of Paganism

apologizing for the behavior of Christian leaders

Correct answer:

defending the veracity of the Christian faith

Explanation:

The early Christian "apologetics" were theologians who were primarily concerned with proving the veracity of the Christian faith and defending Christian truth from outside attacks. Many of the earliest works of Christian theology fall under the category of "apologetics." Paul the Apostle and Augustine of Hippo are two famous examples of Christian "apologetics."

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