SAT II World History : Other Reformation History

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #133 : 1500 C.E. To 1900 C.E.

Martin Luther's Protestant Reformation would have struggled to spread around Europe without which of the following?

Possible Answers:

The aid of the British monarch King Henry VIII

The invention of the printing press

The initial support of the Vatican

The Copernican Revolution causing the common man to question the legitimacy of the Catholic Church

The open border agreements provided by the European Union

Correct answer:

The invention of the printing press

Explanation:

The Protestant Reformation began in 1517 when Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door of a church in Wittenburg. It was not the first time in European history that a reformer had sought to make radical changes within Christianity to escape the abuses and power of the Catholic Church; however, it was the first time that such a reformation had been attempted since the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1439. The printing press allowed Luther's work to be reprinted, translated and transmitted around Europe, spreading the ideas of the Protestant Reformation to a whole new host of people.

Example Question #2 : Other Reformation History

Mary Tudor was unusual as a post-Henry VIII English monarch because she __________.

Possible Answers:

openly favored Protestantism

despised the common people

openly favored Catholicism

was a woman

produced no heirs

Correct answer:

openly favored Catholicism

Explanation:

Following the reign of Henry VIII, English monarchs were expected to follow Anglicanism and be the head of the Church of England. Henry broke from the Catholic Church in 1535 and began the English Reformation. Mary, one of his daughters, reigned in between his son Edward and another of his daughters, Elizabeth I. She undid all the Reformation changes undertaken by her predecessors and declared England a Catholic kingdom. This would prove a costly mistake for her in terms of maintaining her power. For the rest of English history, English monarchs have rarely been Catholic and certainly have rarely been openly Catholic.

Example Question #3 : Other Reformation History

The Peace of Westphalia ended __________.

Possible Answers:

the English Civil War

the Seven Years' War

the Thirty Years' War

the French Wars of Religion

the War of the Roses

Correct answer:

the Thirty Years' War

Explanation:

The Peace of Westphalia was a peace treaty signed in 1648 that ended the brutal Thirty Years' War that had ravaged much of Central Europe. The Thirty Years' War was primarily a conflict between Protestants and Catholics fought in the lands of modern-day Germany, but at one time or another it involved almost every major power in Europe.

Example Question #4 : Other Reformation History

The Peace of Augsburg __________.

Possible Answers:

ended the French Wars of Religion and led the king to issue the Edict of Nantes, guaranteeing religious freedom in the nation

followed the end of the English Civil War and gave complete control over the country to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell

None of the other answer choices is correct.

allowed princes within the Holy Roman Empire to determine whether the religion of their domains was Roman Catholic or Lutheran

ended the Thirty Years' War and deemed Protestantism to be the official religion of the Holy Roman Empire

Correct answer:

allowed princes within the Holy Roman Empire to determine whether the religion of their domains was Roman Catholic or Lutheran

Explanation:

The Peace of Augsburg was signed in 1555 between the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and an alliance of Lutheran rulers within his empire. It declared that the various princes of the Holy Roman Empire were free to choose whichever denomination of Christianity they wanted for their dominion, but then the entire population of that territory had to follow the chosen religion.

Example Question #60 : Age Of Exploration And Protestant Reformation

Predestination was a core tenet of which religion of the Protestant Reformation?

Possible Answers:

Calvinism

Arminianism

Lutheran

Anabaptist

Anglicanism

Correct answer:

Calvinism

Explanation:

Predestination is the belief that the fate of all people, and their access to the afterlife, is predetermined by God before they are born. This was a core tenet of Calvinism.

Example Question #5 : Other Reformation History

Huguenots are __________.

Possible Answers:

Christian citizens of the Ottoman Empire

members of a Christian missionary group in South Africa

French Protestants

English Catholics

Dutch Protestants

Correct answer:

French Protestants

Explanation:

Huguenots were French Protestants during the Reformation in France and in some places still are today. They have been heavily persecuted throughout French history by various groups and often by the state, and their numbers have never been as high as they were before the French Wars of Religion. 

Example Question #6 : Other Reformation History

The Council of Trent was convened in order to __________.

Possible Answers:

gather together the various emerging sects of Protestantism and slaughter the leaders 

help provide support between the various emerging sects of Protestantism 

provide an ordered and official Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation

establish a Protestant League to provide a standing army to meet the threat of Catholic aggression 

establish a Catholic Holy League to resist the invasion of the Ottoman Empire in Europe 

Correct answer:

provide an ordered and official Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation

Explanation:

The Council of Trent convened in the middle of the sixteenth century. Its purpose was to provide an official Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation. In particular, the Council ruled on the various doctrines of faith that were being criticized by the Protestant Reformation and widely reaffirmed them. It also ruled that Bishops had to be present in the territory that they governed and that the sale of indulgences was an illegal church practice.

Example Question #7 : Other Reformation History

Why is the Peace of Augsburg so significant in the religious history of Europe? 

Possible Answers:

It provided the Pope with safe passage to flee the Sacking of Rome and continue to lead the Catholic faith from the South of France.

It reaffirmed the position of the Holy Roman Empire that all Protestants are heretics, and it gave extra weight to the Catholic Counter Reformation.

It provided enough time for Luther and Calvin to escape the forces of the Counter Reformation and continue to spread their messages.

It gave legal authority to the religious split between Catholics and Protestants within the Holy Roman Empire.

It led to religious tolerance in the Holy Roman Empire that eventually spread throughout Europe.

Correct answer:

It gave legal authority to the religious split between Catholics and Protestants within the Holy Roman Empire.

Explanation:

The Peace of Augsburg was signed in 1555 between Charles V, the head of the Holy Roman Empire, and an alliance of Lutheran Princes. The Peace formally ended hostilities between the two groups and permanently established the division of Christianity between Catholicism and Protestantism in the Holy Roman Empire. Although it provided some measure of "religious tolerance," to use that phrase suggests far more tolerance than was present at the time. Yes, the rulers of a princely state could determine which form of Christianity they wanted, but all their subjects had to obey on pain of death, and executions and genocides remained common throughout Europe.

Example Question #8 : Other Reformation History

The Defenestration of Prague led directly to __________.

Possible Answers:

The Peace of Augsburg 

The Seven Years' War

The Thirty Years' War

The War of Spanish Succession 

The War of Austrian Succession 

Correct answer:

The Thirty Years' War

Explanation:

The Defenestration of Prague occurred in 1618. It refers to an incident where a group of Catholic Lords were thrown out of a window following a rather heated disagreement with a group of Protestants. This incident is one of the most famous in the build-up to the Thirty Years' War, which would rage from 1618 until 1648 across much of Central Europe. 

Example Question #9 : Other Reformation History

Which of these statements about the various denominations of Christianity during Reformation Europe is NOT true?

Possible Answers:

The English monarch was head of the Church of England.

Predestination was a core concept of Calvinism.

Justification through good works was not a part of Lutheran belief.

Adult baptism was only practiced by the Anabaptists.

Justification by Faith was an important part of Catholic belief.

Correct answer:

Justification by Faith was an important part of Catholic belief.

Explanation:

In Anglicanism, the English monarch is head of the Church of England. In Anabaptism, adults are baptized rather than babies. Predestination, the belief that people's eternal fate is predetermined by God before they are born, is a core concept of Calvinism. Justification through Faith alone is the crucial difference between Lutheranism and Catholicism. Luther said that good works and following the rules of the Church were not the way through which eternal salvation was achieved. Instead, Luther argued that salvation was already promised, all one had to do was believe in it and have faith in Christ's saving grace. 

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