SAT II World History : Other Enlightenment History

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

Example Question #413 : Sat Subject Test In World History

Tsar Alexander II of Russia is best remembered for doing which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Emancipating the serfs

Modernizing the Russian army

Gaining control of the Crimea by defeating the French and the British

Establishing St. Petersberg as the Russian capital

Ushering in the Russian Revolution by being murdered

Correct answer:

Emancipating the serfs

Explanation:

Alexander II is often called "Alexander the Liberator" because in 1861, he ended the centuries long economic system of serfdom by emancipating the serfs. Serfdom was effectively slavery by another name. A serf was the property of his or her landowner and could not move without the landowner's permission. Serfs were expected to work the land and provide for their master's prosperity.

Example Question #414 : Sat Subject Test In World History

In what century were the Russian serfs emancipated?

Possible Answers:

The twentieth century

The sixteenth century

The eighteenth century

The nineteenth century

The seventeenth century

Correct answer:

The nineteenth century

Explanation:

The Russian serfs were emancipated in 1861 by Tsar Alexander II. The institution of serfdom was very similar to the institution of slavery and underpinned the whole feudal system of economic and social life throughout much of Europe from the fall of the Roman empire until the Industrial Revolution. It is worth noting that the emancipation of the serfs in Russia and the slaves in the United States happened at very much the same time. Clearly there was a global movement away from forced labor.

Example Question #415 : Sat Subject Test In World History

In pre-revolution France, the First Estate was comprised of __________.

Possible Answers:

The peasants 

Nobility 

The clergy 

Royalty 

The press

Correct answer:

The clergy 

Explanation:

In France, under the Old Regime (before the French Revolution), France was partially governed by the Estates-General. This was a form of political representation where various classes of people, or “estates,” were represented as a group. The First Estate was composed of clergymen; the Second Estate was made up of noblemen; and the Third Estate was comprised of the common man (everyone else).

Example Question #416 : Sat Subject Test In World History

Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, and Maria Theresa of Austria are all examples of __________.

Possible Answers:

Holy Roman Emperors 

enlightened despots 

All of these answers are correct.

constitutional monarchs 

Protestant supporters 

Correct answer:

enlightened despots 

Explanation:

Catherine the Great of Russia, Frederick the Great of Prussia, and Maria Theresa of Austria are three well-known examples of "enlightened despots." During the Enlightenment era, many absolute rulers came to embrace the practices and ideals of the Enlightenment thinkers. These rulers did little to encourage democracy or constitutionalism in their countries and still ruled in an autocratic style, but they were more likely to favor freedom of speech, along with freedom of religion and expression.

Example Question #417 : Sat Subject Test In World History

Which of these statements about the "Grand Tour" is NOT true? 

Possible Answers:

It only became practical with the advent of the railroad.

It was primarily undertaken by young men, after finishing university.

A Grand Tour involved an organized trip around Europe.

It was meant to serve as an education in art and the origins of western civilization.

Only aristocrats were able to undertake a Grand Tour.

Correct answer:

It only became practical with the advent of the railroad.

Explanation:

Throughout the Enlightenment period, it was common for young aristocratic men, particularly from Britain or Northern Europe, to undergo a "Grand Tour." This involved a months-long trip around the major sites of Enlightenment Europe. It was particularly focused on Italy and France. The purpose was to gain a greater understanding of art history and the history of western civilization. The only one of these statements that is not true is that it only became practical with the advent of the railroad—the railroad merely made it easier; people had been doing it since the early-seventeenth century. 

Example Question #418 : Sat Subject Test In World History

The War of Austrian Succession began with challenges to which ruler? 

Possible Answers:

Joseph I

Maria Theresa

Leopold II

Joseph II

Marie Antoinette

Correct answer:

Maria Theresa

Explanation:

The War of Austrian Succession was fought in the 1740s over the issue of whether Maria Theresa was fit to inherit the Hapsburg throne of Austria from her father. Those contending that she was unfit were doing so on the premise that, as a woman, she was ineligible for the throne. The war ended with Maria Theresa victorious and sitting on the throne of Austria, which she would continue to do for the next several decades.

Example Question #419 : Sat Subject Test In World History

How did the declining influence of the Catholic Church most directly contribute to the commercial and banking revolution?

Possible Answers:

It freed individuals in Northern Europe to pursue a more academic and secular life.

It allowed investors to lend money and charge interest in return.

None of these answers are correct; the decline of the Catholic Church had no influence on the commercial and banking revolution.

It opened up the New World to European colonialism and flooded the European economy with gold and silver specie.

All of these answers are correct.

Correct answer:

It allowed investors to lend money and charge interest in return.

Explanation:

Under Catholic tradition, it is forbidden to lend money with the expectation that the loanee will then pay back the money plus interest. This is called usury. When Catholicism was the dominant expression of Christianity in Europe, any type of business venture (as we understand them now) was largely impossible, or relied on one incredibly wealthy patron making himself slightly more wealthy. The rise of Protestantism and the decline of Catholicism allowed many of the Northern European countries in particular to start funding colonizing missions, explorations, and long-distance trading ventures through lending money. This radically altered the direction of European history and inspired the commercial and banking revolutions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Example Question #421 : Sat Subject Test In World History

Conservatives during the Enlightenment period favored __________.

Possible Answers:

an immediate return to previous autocratic institutions or a preservation of the tyrannical status quo

slow and gradual change within society to prevent chaos and disorder

None of these answers is correct.

rapid and progressive change within society to prevent autocracy and tyranny

completely eliminating the influence of religion on secular and political life

Correct answer:

slow and gradual change within society to prevent chaos and disorder

Explanation:

During the Enlightenment period, political philosophy generally fell under two headings: conservatism and liberalism. Liberals favored rapid, progressive change, often brought about through revolution or bloodshed, and they desired an immediate end to autocracy and absolute monarchy. Conservatives, on the other hand, favored slower, more gradual change to society and feared chaos and disorder more than they feared autocracy.

Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors

Incompatible Browser

Please upgrade or download one of the following browsers to use Instant Tutoring: