SAT II World History : Monarchs, Aristocracy, and Parliament

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Monarchs, Aristocracy, And Parliament

The Glorious Revolution of 1688 established the supremacy of __________ in Great Britain.

Possible Answers:

the Catholic church

the monarchy

the Protestant faith

the French

Parliament

Correct answer:

Parliament

Explanation:

The Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the culminating point of a centuries-long battle between the English monarchy and the British parliament. Earlier in the seventeenth century, Parliamentarians had defeated Royalists in the English Civil War, but the rule of Parliament proved too puritanical for the English people, so the crown was restored, but only temporarily. By 1688, Parliament had grown weary with the ruling James II and "invited" William and Mary to seize power on the condition that they pledge to abide by constitutional laws that placed Parliament above the king. This system of constitutional monarchy has existed in Britain ever since with Parliament constantly and steadily gaining in power and influence.

Example Question #2 : Monarchs, Aristocracy, And Parliament

Cardinal Mazarin and Cardinal Richelieu are most famous for __________.

Possible Answers:

weakening the power of Parliament in Spain

weakening the power of Parliament in England

strengthening the power of absolute monarchs in Spain

strengthening the power of absolute monarchs in France

strengthening the power of Parliament in France

Correct answer:

strengthening the power of absolute monarchs in France

Explanation:

Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin were the chief advisors to the French kings Louis XIII and Louis XIV, respectively. They were collectively responsible for suppressing the power of the French nobility and increasing the absolute power of the French monarchy. The French monarchy under Louis XIV is generally considered the supreme example of absolutism in seventeenth-century Europe.

Example Question #3 : Monarchs, Aristocracy, And Parliament

Cardinal Mazarin was the Chief Minister of __________.

Possible Answers:

Henry VIII

Louis XIV

Maximilian I

Charles V

Henry IV of France

Correct answer:

Louis XIV

Explanation:

Cardinal Mazarin was the Chief Minister to Louis XIV throughout the King's childhood and early adult life. Mazarin was responsible for crushing a revolt of the French nobility and for strengthening the power of the French monarchy.

Example Question #4 : Monarchs, Aristocracy, And Parliament

Napoleon emerged as ruler of France __________.

Possible Answers:

after the Franco-Prussian War

after the Congress of Vienna

after the War of 1812

after the Seven Years' War

after the French Revolution

Correct answer:

after the French Revolution

Explanation:

The chaos of the French Revolution created an immense power vacuum in Paris and the infant republican French nation. This vacuum was filled, in spectacular style, by a Corsican member of the French military called Napoleon Bonaparte. He would go on to become one of the most famous and succesful conquerors in European history before extending himself too far and getting exiled not once, but twice.

Example Question #5 : Monarchs, Aristocracy, And Parliament

King James I and his parliament primarily disagreed over __________.

Possible Answers:

taxation and tariffs

economic reforms

who would inherit the throne following James’ death

foreign relations

religious reforms

Correct answer:

foreign relations

Explanation:

King James I inherited a throne that was at odds with the world’s one dominant superpower at the time, Spain. James, fearing Spanish invasion, wanted to make peace with the Catholic kingdom, but the English Parliament, entirely dominated by Protestants, favored war. Eventually, Parliament would win out and James and the English would side with the French against the Spanish.

Example Question #6 : Monarchs, Aristocracy, And Parliament

What name was given to the French parliament formed by French King Philip IV that contributed to the rise of the French nation-state?

Possible Answers:

The Estates General

The Duma

The Reichstag

The Palatinate

The House of Commons

Correct answer:

The Estates General

Explanation:

The formation of the French Estates General in the fourteenth century by French King Philip IV led to the rise of the French nation-state. The Estates General was a form of rudimentary representative democracy in which certain members of society were able to influence the political direction of the country.

Example Question #7 : Monarchs, Aristocracy, And Parliament

The Directory, which took power during the French Revolution, was far more __________ than the National Assembly, which preceded it.

Possible Answers:

egalitarian

autocratic

conservative

liberal

theocratic

Correct answer:

conservative

Explanation:

The French Revolution initially replaced a monarchy with a democratic government founded on universal suffrage; however, this so-called “First Republic” proved ineffective and was quickly replaced by the Directory. The Directory was a group of powerful and wealthy conservative-minded men who replaced the National Assembly and the Convention and began undoing many of the changes wrought by the Revolution.

Example Question #8 : Monarchs, Aristocracy, And Parliament

The National Assembly emerged from the __________ Estate in France after __________.

Possible Answers:

Third . . . the Revolution of 1848

Second . . . French Revolution

First . . . the Revolution of 1848

First . . . the fall of Napoleon

Third . . . French Revolution

Correct answer:

Third . . . French Revolution

Explanation:

Prior to the French Revolution, the French parliament was called the Estates General and was formed of three groups: the First Estate, composed of the nobility, which had the most power; the Second Estate, formed of the clergy; and the Third Estate, formed of just about everyone else. The National Assembly grew out of the Third Estate and presided over the initial phases of government during the French Revolution.

Example Question #9 : Monarchs, Aristocracy, And Parliament

Absolutism: Divine Right of Kings . . .  Constitutionalism: __________.

Possible Answers:

Glorious Revolution

Scientific Revolution

Mandate of Heaven

Popular Sovereignty

Manifest Destiny

Correct answer:

Popular Sovereignty

Explanation:

The Divine Right of Kings is a political philosophy that justifies or supports Absolutism. It suggests that kings are divinely ordained by God and that therefore to rebel against their authority is to rebel against the will of God. It was widely influential from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century as a legitimizing theory of government for absolutist monarchies from France to Russia. Popular sovereignty says that the only legitimate means of government comes from the approval of the people. As such, it may be understood as the legitimizing political philosophy for Constitutionalism.

Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors

Incompatible Browser

Please upgrade or download one of the following browsers to use Instant Tutoring: