SAT II World History : Impact of Modern Technology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Impact Of Modern Technology

Trench warfare was primarily conducted during __________.

Possible Answers:

the Crimean War

World War Two 

the American Civil War

World War One

the Russo-Japanese War 

Correct answer:

World War One

Explanation:

In the years leading up to World War One, the world witnessed great advances in technology that could be used to defend and fortify positions (most notably the machine gun), but far fewer advances in technology that aided mobility and attacking. In such a situation as existed on the Western front of Europe during World War One, the advantage was firmly in the hands of those in a defensive position. This lead to a massive stalemate in which the Allied and Central powers faced off across a few miles of unmanned terrain (“No Man’s Land”), and traded suicidal attacks over the top.

Example Question #2 : Impact Of Modern Technology

Sputnik was __________.

Possible Answers:

a Soviet spy program

the first man-made satellite to orbit the Earth

a Soviet developed nuclear weapon

a Russian propaganda program

a nuclear non-proliferation treaty signed between the United States and the Soviet Union

Correct answer:

the first man-made satellite to orbit the Earth

Explanation:

Sputnik was a Soviet-built and operated satellite that was the first man-made object to orbit the Earth. The voyage of Sputnik set off alarms in the United States and began the decades-long Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Example Question #3 : Impact Of Modern Technology

Moore's Law refers to the belief that __________.

Possible Answers:

by allowing the weakest and least productive members of society to survive, and sometimes prosper, mankind is impeding the evolutionary process

two industrial, democratic nations will never declare war on one another

computing power will double roughly every two years

eventually the computing power of machines will surpass that of human beings 

human beings will colonize space before the end of the twenty-first century

Correct answer:

computing power will double roughly every two years

Explanation:

Moore's Law is a law of computer engineering that states that the power of computers will double roughly every two years. Specifically, it states that the number of transistors (part of a circuit that controls the precise flow of current through circuit boards) doubles in an integrated circuit every two years. So far, Moore's Law has proved extremely prescient. 

Example Question #4 : Impact Of Modern Technology

How have antibiotics, like penicillin, changed the nature of warfare? 

Possible Answers:

Far fewer soldiers die from infections picked up through injuries sustained in battle.

Fewer soldiers die from diseases carried by mosquitoes.

The adrenaline level and focus of soldiers is dramatically improved, allowing them to be more efficient fighters.

Generals no longer have to worry about their armies being decimated by sexually transmitted diseases.

All of these answers are correct.

Correct answer:

Far fewer soldiers die from infections picked up through injuries sustained in battle.

Explanation:

Prior to the invention of penicillin and other antibiotics, a significant proportion of battlefield deaths occurred from diseases that we now consider preventable. Antibiotics allow doctors to treat bacterial infections very effectively. Penicillin was invented in 1928, and the difference between the number of people who died from infections in World War One compared to those who perished from the same causes in World War Two is nothing short of miraculous. Of course, penicillin has also had a massive impact on the number of people around the world who die from infectious diseases. By some estimates, penicillin has saved over a hundred million lives since its first usage in the early 1930s.

Example Question #5 : Impact Of Modern Technology

Who invented penicillin? 

Possible Answers:

Alexander Fleming

John Baird

Jonas Salk

Nikola Tesla

Karl Jansky

Correct answer:

Alexander Fleming

Explanation:

Penicillin was invented by Alexander Fleming in 1928. The story goes that Fleming was experimenting with bacterial molds when he went away on vacation; upon returning, he discovered that one of his bacterial cultures was contaminated with a fungus and that the cultures surrounding it had been destroyed. So, completely by accident, Fleming discovered one of the most important medicines in human history—the antibacterial penicillin. 

Example Question #6 : Impact Of Modern Technology

Jonas Salk is famous for __________.

Possible Answers:

the development of radar 

inspiring the Green Revolution with his invention of pesticides

inventing the television 

his work on the Manhattan Project 

inventing the world's first effective polio vaccine

Correct answer:

inventing the world's first effective polio vaccine

Explanation:

Prior to the mid-1950s, when Salk's vaccine for polio was first provided for the public to use, polio had been one of the most devastating diseases in the Western world. It affected mostly children and caused death in many cases and paralysis in many others. In 1952, America experienced the worst epidemic of polio in the nation's history as many tens of thousands of children died or were paralyzed, so when Salk announced that he had developed a completely effective vaccine for polio, he was greeted as a national hero and a miracle worker. Today, the disease has been completely eradicated in the Western world and eradication efforts have been ongoing throughout the rest of the world. It is hoped that before 2020, the disease will have been completely isolated to human history.

Example Question #7 : Impact Of Modern Technology

Marie Curie is most well known for her __________.

Possible Answers:

pioneering research in radioactivity 

dangerous work on the Manhattan Project 

imprisonment during the Civil Rights Era 

decision to sell state secrets to the Soviet Union 

self-sacrificing mission to promote legal access to birth control for women

Correct answer:

pioneering research in radioactivity 

Explanation:

Marie Curie was a Polish scientist who in the first decade of the twentieth century did pioneering work on the nature of radioactivity in elemental matter. She discovered, among other things, two new elements and has received two Nobel prizes. 

Example Question #21 : 1900 C.E. To Present

The "Green Revolution" refers to __________.

Possible Answers:

A series of technological innovations that led to a dramatic growth in agricultural production in the 1950s and 1960s

The extra emphasis placed on environmental concerns, particularly in the Western world, to try and counter the effects of the Industrial Revolution and global warming 

The growth of agriculture and industry in the central United States in the 1980s and 1990s

The emergence of political parties in Europe that advocate for a return to an agrarian and simpler way of living

The emergence of the Indian industrial movement following the end of India's flirtation with socialism towards the end of the twentieth century

Correct answer:

A series of technological innovations that led to a dramatic growth in agricultural production in the 1950s and 1960s

Explanation:

The Green Revolution took place during the 1950s and 1960s and is one of the primary causes behind the rapid growth in population seen around the world since the end of the Second World War. The Green Revolution involved wholesale changes and technological innovations in the area of agriculture that have allowed farms to be far more productive and efficient than they were previously. The Green Revolution, by some estimates, is credited with allowing an additional one to two billion people to survive on Earth.

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