SAT II World History : Eastern Europe in the Reformation

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Eastern Europe In The Reformation

Which of these factors contributed the most to the rise of Protestantism in Hungary? 

Possible Answers:

The excommunication of the Hungarian king by the Pope

The execution of Catholic Hungarian nobles

The spread of the writings of Ulrich Zwingli

Ottoman invasion and defeat of the Hapsburg Empire

None of these answers is correct; the Protestant Reformation had no success in Hungary.

Correct answer:

Ottoman invasion and defeat of the Hapsburg Empire

Explanation:

During the Protestant Reformation, the Ottoman Empire invaded Hungary (then under control of the Hapsburg Holy Roman, and Catholic, Empire). The Ottomans conquered the territory and the Hungarian people lost faith in their Catholic rulers, and in Catholicism itself, to protect them. By 1600, the vast majority of the country had converted to Protestantism, although this would be undone by the Catholic Counter-Reformation.

Example Question #2 : Eastern Europe In The Reformation

The Protestant Reformation in Poland was most likely to be embraced by which of the following groups?

Possible Answers:

The royal family

The merchant class

None of these answers; Poland remained staunchly Catholic throughout the Reformation. 

The peasantry

The nobility

Correct answer:

The nobility

Explanation:

The ruling family of Poland remained Catholic throughout the Protestant Reformation, but the nobles and landed aristocracy were quick to embrace Protestantism. Interestingly, the peasantry generally sided with the King and with not the nobles and remained fiercely Catholic. 

Example Question #3 : Eastern Europe In The Reformation

By the time the Thirty Years' War came to an end, most of Poland and Hungary was __________.

Possible Answers:

Lutheran

Anabaptist

Calvinist

Catholic

Hussite

Correct answer:

Catholic

Explanation:

The Thirty Years' War, fought from 1618 to 1648, was primarily fought as a war of religion between Protestants and Catholics. In Poland and Hungary, it contributed to the declining influence of Protestantism and the resurgence of Catholicism.

Example Question #4 : Eastern Europe In The Reformation

The Hussite Church was most influential in __________.

Possible Answers:

Bohemia

Germany

Hungary

Romania

Poland

Correct answer:

Bohemia

Explanation:

The Hussite Church emerged from the teachings of Jan Hus. Hus preached reform in the century before the beginning of the more widely impactful Protestant Reformation, but his reforming movement may be seen as part of the wider European trend. The Hussites were centered in Bohemia, in the modern day Czech Republic.

Example Question #5 : Eastern Europe In The Reformation

Which of these factors was most important in determining the flourishing of different religious sects in Poland, Germany, and Hungary during the Protestant Reformation?

Possible Answers:

The religious beliefs of the princes

The economic prosperity of the middle class

The relative threat of Islamic invasion

The proximity to Wittenburg

The relative poverty of the peasantry

Correct answer:

The religious beliefs of the princes

Explanation:

Throughout Europe, but especially in Germany, Poland, and Hungary the most important factor in determining the religious beliefs of a region or group of people was the religious beliefs of the prince or ruler of that region. If the prince embraced Lutheranism, then a large number of the people under his control would also do so.

Example Question #6 : Eastern Europe In The Reformation

Which of these statements about the Protestant Reformation in Poland and Hungary is most accurate? 

Possible Answers:

The Protestant Reformation failed to take off and Catholicism remained the only legally accepted religion.

The Protestant Reformation was very successful and led to the long-term conversion of almost all of the peoples of Hungary and Poland.

The Protestant Reformation was only embraced by the poorest in society and was suppressed when much of the peasantry was massacred.

The Protestant Reformation took off rapidly but was soon quashed by the Catholic Counter-Reformation.

The Protestant Reformation failed to take off and Catholicism remained the dominant religion.

Correct answer:

The Protestant Reformation took off rapidly but was soon quashed by the Catholic Counter-Reformation.

Explanation:

The Protestant Reformation made rapid initial gains in both Poland and Hungary. In the century or so that followed the Protestant Reformation, the majority of both countries converted to Protestantism (either Lutheranism or Calvinism); however, both countries were overwhelmed by the Catholic Counter-Reformation, and most of the gains made by Protestants in the sixteenth century were undone in the seventeenth century.

Example Question #7 : Eastern Europe In The Reformation

What name is given to the systematic destruction of Jewish communities in nineteenth-century Russia?

Possible Answers:

The Holocaust

The Duma

Tsarists

Pogroms

Mensheviks

Correct answer:

Pogroms

Explanation:

Pogroms were organized attacks on Jewish communities in Russia carried out by the state in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Example Question #8 : Eastern Europe In The Reformation

By the beginning of the seventeenth century, __________.

Possible Answers:

religious tolerance was higher in Hungary than probably anywhere else in Europe 

Catholicism had been completely removed from Hungarian society 

the vast majority of Hungarian Protestants had been exiled 

the vast majority of Hungarian Protestants had been executed

the vast majority of Hungarians had converted to Protestantism 

Correct answer:

the vast majority of Hungarians had converted to Protestantism 

Explanation:

During the sixteenth century, the Hungarian people were overrun by the Ottoman Empire and began to view their Catholic faith as offering inadequate protection. Subsequently, Protestantism gained rapid and almost total popularity, and by the beginning of the seventeenth century, it is estimated that over ninety percent of the population had converted away from Catholicism; however, in the seventeenth century, the Catholic Counter Reformation, led by Hungarian King Ferdinand II, fought back, and by the eighteenth century, the vast majority of Hungarians were Catholic again.

Example Question #9 : Eastern Europe In The Reformation

Which branch of Protestantism spread most effectively in Poland during the Protestant Reformation?

Possible Answers:

Calvinism

Lutheran

Anabaptist

Anglican

Presbytarian

Correct answer:

Calvinism

Explanation:

Calvinism was the most effective Protestant faith at penetrating Polish society, and it was the dominant religion in the country for several decades at the height of the Protestant Reformation; however, the Catholic Counter-Reformation was wildly successful, and Calvinism survived only in limited numbers.

Example Question #10 : Eastern Europe In The Reformation

The Battle of Mohacs contributed to the __________.

Possible Answers:

rise of Protestantism in Hungary

emergence of Islam in Hungary 

rise of Protestantism in Lithuania

rise of Protestantism in Poland

return of Catholicism to Poland and Hungary 

Correct answer:

rise of Protestantism in Hungary

Explanation:

The Battle of Mohacs was fought between the forces of Hungary and the Ottoman Empire in 1526. It ended in an overwhelming victory for the forces of the Ottoman Empire, which led the people of Hungary to abandon their Catholic faith, because they thought that it no longer offered the protection of God's grace. They took up Protestantism in large numbers and would hold the faith for a century or so until the Catholic Counter-Reformation returned Hungary to Catholicism.

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