SAT II World History : Communism and Socialism

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Communism And Socialism

The Domino Theory states which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Once one country falls under the influence of communism, the neighboring countries are likely to follow. 

The United States has a duty to prevent the spread of communism in Western Europe.

Communism and capitalism can never mutually coexist in the world and will always be in conflict.

Two democratic countries will never go to war with each other.

The impact of communism can never spread into Europe because wealthy nations will have no reason to embrace an end to private property.

Correct answer:

Once one country falls under the influence of communism, the neighboring countries are likely to follow. 

Explanation:

The Domino Theory became an important part of American foreign policy during the Cold War. It states that once one country falls under the influence of communism, there is a heightened chance that its neighboring countries will also succumb. It was the main motivation behind several of the United States' conflicts in the twentieth century such as the Korean War and the Vietnam War.

Example Question #2 : Communism And Socialism

Why might Karl Marx have been surprised that communism first took off in Russia?

Possible Answers:

The Russians were engaged in a war, and the communist revolution was meant to take place during a time of relative peace.

Marx expected that a communist revolution could never actually happen and wrote his piece in a theoretical, utopian sense.

The monarchy was stronger in Russia than in the rest of Europe.

Russia had a long history of democratic institutions designed to prevent such a revolution.

The Russian economy at the time was much less developed than that of Britain or Germany.

Correct answer:

The Russian economy at the time was much less developed than that of Britain or Germany.

Explanation:

Karl Marx, writer of The Communist Manifesto, expected the communist revolution to take place first in Britain, Germany, or the United States. That it should happen first in Russia, a comparably undeveloped country, would have been a massive surprise to Marx. 

Example Question #3 : Communism And Socialism

The Warsaw Pact was formed between __________.

Possible Answers:

the capitalist nations of Asia

the capitalist nations of Europe

Poland and Russia against German invasion

the communist nations of Asia

the communist nations of Eastern Europe

Correct answer:

the communist nations of Eastern Europe

Explanation:

In the aftermath of World War II, the allied powers and several other democratic nations formed NATO, an agreement to provide for the cooperative growth of capitalist societies and to counter the rising threat of Soviet influence. The Warsaw Pact was formed shortly after as a countermeasure. It incorporated all the communist nations of Eastern Europe into a treaty with the Soviet Union.

Example Question #4 : Communism And Socialism

What is the name of policy of openness and extension of individual freedoms initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union during the 1980s? 

Possible Answers:

Perestroika

Duma

Glasnost

Comintern

The Warsaw Pact

Correct answer:

Glasnost

Explanation:

During the 1980s, the Soviet Union underwent a revolution of sorts that paved the way for the fall of communism just a few years later. This revolution is generally referred to as "glasnost" and "perestroika." "Perestroika" was the restructuring of the political system. "Glasnost" was the opening of freedoms of speech and the press in Russian society.

Example Question #5 : Communism And Socialism

In the Russian Revolution, the Tsarist monarchy was replaced by __________.

Possible Answers:

communism

autocracy

oligarchy

capitalism

fascism

Correct answer:

communism

Explanation:

The Russian Revolution took place in 1917 during World War I. The tsar at the time, Nicholas II, was overthrown, and his government was replaced with a communist government that would grow into the USSR. When the Russian Revolution took place, the population was decimated from warfare and famine, and the new communist government pulled Russia out of the First World War.

Example Question #6 : Communism And Socialism

Which two groups comprised the Socialist movement in Russia at the time of Russian Revolution?

Possible Answers:

Muscovites and Siberians 

None of the other answer choices is correct.

Bolsheviks and Mensheviks 

Leninists and Stalinists 

Leninists and Trotskyites

Correct answer:

Bolsheviks and Mensheviks 

Explanation:

The Bolsheviks and Mensheviks were the two primary socialist political parties in 1917, the time of the revolution in Russia. The Mensheviks were lead by Alexander Kerenskii and the Bolsheviks were lead by Lenin. The Bolsheviks were the majority and differed from the Menshevik minority in their beliefs; Mensheviks favored a gradual change and opposed revolution, and the Bolsheviks desired absolute control for the Socialist Party and favored revolution as opposed to gradual change. The Bolsheviks and Lenin would emerge in control.

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