SAT II World History : Afghanistan and Iraq

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Afghanistan And Iraq

The American-led invasion of Afghanistan took place in the immediate aftermath of __________.

Possible Answers:

the assassination of the Afghanistani Prime Minister by the Taliban 

the fall of the Soviet Union

the discovery of nuclear weapons owned by the Taliban

the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 

the 9/11 terrorist attacks 

Correct answer:

the 9/11 terrorist attacks 

Explanation:

The United States-led coalition invasion of Afghanistan began in October 2001 and only ended recently in December of 2014. The war began in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks on American soil less than a month earlier. The publicly stated goals of the American forces were to defeat and dismantle Al-Qaeda and to remove the Taliban government from power.

Example Question #2 : Afghanistan And Iraq

During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, the United States __________.

Possible Answers:

sent troops to fight alongside the guerilla forces of the Afghanistani rebels

provided military and financial assistance to the guerrilla fighters

remained neutral, not wanting to further antagonize the Soviet Union

provided military and financial aid to the Soviet Union to help quell the threat of Islamic fundamentalism

provided military support to the Afghanistan regular army

Correct answer:

provided military and financial assistance to the guerrilla fighters

Explanation:

For much of the Cold War, Afghanistan had been under the Soviet sphere of influence. In the 1980s, the growing strength of the rebel Mujahideen led to direct Soviet invasion and a decade-long conflict. At this time, the United States deemed Islamic fundamentalism to be a much less serious threat than the spread of communism and so provided financial and military assistance to the guerrilla forces fighting against the Soviet Union.

Example Question #3 : Afghanistan And Iraq

Which three countries were identified as the "Axis of Evil" by George W. Bush in 2002?

Possible Answers:

Iran, Iraq, and North Korea

Iran, Iraq, and Afghanistan

Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Iraq

Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Afghanistan

Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Russia

Correct answer:

Iran, Iraq, and North Korea

Explanation:

The "Axis of Evil" was a term created by the government of George W. Bush to try and provide support for American military involvement in Iraq and other countries. Iran, Iraq, and North Korea were identified as "evil" countries that sponsored terrorism and were trying to pursue the ownership of nuclear weapons.

Example Question #4 : Afghanistan And Iraq

During and after the First Gulf War, which Iraqi people were brutally suppressed by the regime of Saddam Hussein?

Possible Answers:

Baathists

Tamils

Kurds

Bedouin

Sunni

Correct answer:

Kurds

Explanation:

During and immediately after the Gulf War, the Kurdish people (along with a loose coalition of other groups) rebelled against the forces of Saddam Hussein and the Sunni-led government. Although they achieved many initial victories, the government reprisal was swift and brutal. Chemical weapons were used, and mass genocide was encouraged. Almost two million Kurds fled Iraq during this time period.

Example Question #5 : Afghanistan And Iraq

In the 1980s, the United States supplied weapons and munitions to the Afghanistani Mujahadeen because __________.

Possible Answers:

the guerrilla fighters were resisting Soviet occupation

the guerrilla fighters were resisting Chinese occupation

the United States wanted to reverse negative public opinion of the United States among the Afghanistani people

Afghanistan and the United States were allied against Pakistan and Iraq

the guerrilla fighters were resisting Iranian occupation

Correct answer:

the guerrilla fighters were resisting Soviet occupation

Explanation:

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was one of the last conflicts of the Cold War. The United States funded the Mujahadeen resistance fighters who were resisting Soviet occupation. This decision would have long-lasting consequences for the United States, as the weapons were used against the country in later conflicts.

Example Question #1 : Ethnic Identities 1900 To Present

To which of these Islamic religions or ethnic groups did Saddam Hussein belong?

Possible Answers:

Kurd

Shia

Sunni

Wahhabi

Salafist

Correct answer:

Sunni

Explanation:

Saddam Hussein was a Sunni Muslim in a country (Iraq) where the population distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims is roughly even. Sectarian differences between Sunni and Shia have been the cause of much conflict in the Middle East for hundreds of years and are especially relevant today.

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