SAT II US History : Summary of U.S. Social History from 1899 to the Present

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II US History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #111 : U.S. Social History

Langston Hughes, Nella Larson, James Weldon Johnson, and Duke Ellington helped usher a key social change through the arts of the recent African American migration to New York City.  This Jazz Age phenomenon is known as              .

Possible Answers:

The Blue Note

The Cotton Club

The Black Sox Scandal

The Harlem Renaissance

The Flapper Age

Correct answer:

The Harlem Renaissance

Explanation:

The Harlem Renaissance peaked in the 1920s as a result of the freedoms for African Americans offered by the North. As many African Americans moved from the Jim Crow laws of the south, they pushed for tangible goals and a more positive image. The Cotton Club, the most most famous of nightclubs, was a home of many of these musicians, but still only offered whites admittance. The flappers followed this incredible influx of music and art, as did the rise of organized crime and the Black Sox Scandal of 1919.

Example Question #112 : U.S. Social History

Post-World War II America could best be characterized by                   .

Possible Answers:

economic prosperity and political reform

economic prosperity and massive population growth 

political reform and massive population growth

economic stagnation and limited immigration

military disarmament and political reform 

Correct answer:

economic prosperity and massive population growth 

Explanation:

Post-war and 1950s America is most commonly characterized as a time of massive population growth and economic prosperity. Americans returning from World War II were assisted back into society by the G.I. Bill, which provided for the higher education of veterans. Many American families that had been set back by the outbreak of war made up for lost time and the “baby boom” precipitated massive population growth over the next fifteen years. The “baby boom” in turn then encouraged the growth of consumerism which maintained economic prosperity even in the face of a rapidly advancing Social Security program. Political reforms were existent in the post-war years, as they are in all eras, but the major reforming movements would come into existence in the 1960s as the generation of “Baby Boomers” began to battle the established social and political norms. 

Example Question #113 : U.S. Social History

The so-called “Second Reconstruction” refers to                           .

Possible Answers:

the literary and arts movement known as the Harlem Renaissance

the rulings of the Warren Court

the implementation of Jim Crow Laws across the South

the movement towards female equality following WWII

the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s

Correct answer:

the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s

Explanation:

The term “Second Reconstruction” is used to refer to the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s. What is implicitly implied is that the first period of Reconstruction failed to achieve the proper emancipation and status of Blacks in America; therefore a “Second” Reconstruction was required in order to align society correctly. The rulings of the Warren Court were crucial to the Civil Rights Movement; however that answer is significantly less inclusive.

Example Question #114 : U.S. Social History

Which community was moving to the North during the Great Migration?

Possible Answers:

Catholics 

Indentured servants 

Protestants

African-Americans

Native Americans

Correct answer:

African-Americans

Explanation:

The Great Migration generally refers to the period of time, in the first half of the twentieth century, when African-Americans migrated from the South to the North en masse. They were searching for greater social equality and job opportunities. By the end of the twentieth century, African-Americans were a distinctly urbanized community, with close to 90% of the population living in cities. 

Example Question #1 : Summary Of U.S. Social History From 1899 To The Present

Which Supreme Court case established that the right to free speech was not an absolute guarantee?

Possible Answers:

Schenck v. United States 

Griswold v. Connecticut 

Gideon v. Wainwright

Gregg v. Georgia

Engel v. Vitale

Correct answer:

Schenck v. United States 

Explanation:

Charles Schenck was the Secretary of the Socialist Part of America during World War One. He argued passionately that the young men being drafted to fight in the “Imperialist, European war” owed it to themselves and to the principles of the United States to resist the draft and the involuntary servitude it required. Schenck was indicted under the Espionage Act of 1917 and took his case to the Supreme Court. Schenck believed that his First Amendment rights to freedom of speech and press were being infringed upon by the Espionage Act; however, the Supreme Court ruled against him. The Court's majority verdict maintained that during times of war an individual did not have the right to speak out against military service or the draft. 

Example Question #116 : U.S. Social History

Which early-twentieth-century feminist was the most ardent advocate of birth control?

Possible Answers:

Susan B. Anthony 

Margaret Sanger

Jane Addams

Catharine Beecher

Elizabeth Cady Stanton 

Correct answer:

Margaret Sanger

Explanation:

Margaret Sanger was a prominent feminist who pushed adamantly for the use of birth control and contraception in the first decades of the twentieth century. At the time it was generally held that women did not have the right to intercourse with the assurance that they might not get pregnant. Sanger worked as a nurse for several years and observed the trauma and hardship that unwanted pregnancies brought upon single and poor women, especially in inner cities. She distributed diaphrams freely to women and was tried and convicted for the practice. Her case attracted wide publicity and helped push forward a movement to change the law in 1918. Sanger founded the first American family planning and birth control clinic in Brooklyn, in 1916, and established the American Birth Control League in 1921.

Example Question #117 : U.S. Social History

“Rosie the Riveter” __________.

Possible Answers:

implored women to volunteer as nurses and secretaries to assist in the Pacific theatre of war

deplored male abuses of alcohol prior to Prohibition

called for full and protected female suffrage 

encouraged women to work jobs, traditionally only open to men, during World War Two 

demanded that women adhere to the Cult of Domesticity

Correct answer:

encouraged women to work jobs, traditionally only open to men, during World War Two 

Explanation:

Rosie the Riveter was an important cultural icon during World War Two. It was the term used to describe the American women who were replacing male workers in factories across the United States. The work of these women was vital to the war effort—they produced munitions and supplies. The effect of women entering the workplace in large numbers has been very significant for the growth of sexual equality in the United States and across the Western world.

Example Question #118 : U.S. Social History

The Great Migration refers to the movement of __________

Possible Answers:

Southern European immigrants to America in the late nineteenth century.

New England natives to the Northwest Territory in the late eighteenth century.

English citizens to the new American Colonies in the seventeenth century.

African-Americans from the rural south to the cities of the North and West in the early twentieth century.

urban dwelling whites to the suburbs in the late twentieth century.

Correct answer:

African-Americans from the rural south to the cities of the North and West in the early twentieth century.

Explanation:

In response to a rise in racist driven violence against African-Americans in the South and new factory employment opportunities in the North, large numbers of African-Americans left rural areas in the South for the urban areas of the North. This mass movement of people was one of the largest in American history. The "Great Migration" also drastically changed demographic patterns throughout the country from 1910-1960.

Example Question #119 : U.S. Social History

The 1973 Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade legalized abortion on the legal grounds __________.

Possible Answers:

that a pregnant woman has a right to privacy that would be violated by a ban on abortion

state governments can make no laws on the legality of any medical procedures

abortion could never be fully prevented, and making it legal provided for more safety

only the federal government is allowed to ban abortion

a fetus is the property of the pregnant mother and she can do what she wants with it

Correct answer:

that a pregnant woman has a right to privacy that would be violated by a ban on abortion

Explanation:

The Roe v. Wade case was argued by both sides with Fourteenth Amendment arguments regarding the rights of persons. Jane Roe (a psuedonym) had wanted an abortion, which was illegal in Texas at the time, and sued the state when she was unable to have one. In a surprising 7–2 decision, the Supreme Court found a implicit right to privacy in both the Ninth and Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of a person's right. The decision made abortion in the first six months of pregnancy a guaranteed right that needed to be analyzed under strict scrutiny.

Example Question #2 : Summary Of U.S. Social History From 1899 To The Present

The National Origins Act of 1924 ____________.

Possible Answers:

Heavily restricted the immigration of Eastern and Southern Europeans to the United States

Heavily restricted the immigration of Western Europeans, particularly those of German and Irish descent, to the United States

Lifted the restriction of immigrants arriving from Eastern and Southern Europe

Lifted the restriction on immigrants arriving from East Asia

Lifted the restriction on immigrants arriving from Western Europe

Correct answer:

Heavily restricted the immigration of Eastern and Southern Europeans to the United States

Explanation:

The Immigration Acts of 1924 included several provisions to restrict the immigration of people from certain parts of the world. Those from East Asia, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent were forbidden entirely from moving to the United States. People from Eastern and Southern Europe found their ability to settle in the United States heavily curtailed by the National Origins Act. The Act was passed largely to restrict the arrival of Jews from countries where they faced persecution, such as Poland and Russia. The National Origins Act overturned the earlier Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, which had set the cap at three percent. The Act remained in effect until 1965, when it was overturned by the Immigration and Nationality Act.

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