SAT II US History : Summary of U.S. Foreign Policy from Pre-Columbian History to 1789

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II US History

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From Pre Columbian History To 1789

Who was the Revolutionary War general who committed treason against the United States by planning to surrender the fortress at West Point, NY to British forces?

Possible Answers:

The Marquis de Lafayette

Horatio Gates

Richard Henry Lee

Benedict Arnold

George Clinton

Correct answer:

Benedict Arnold

Explanation:

Arnold was in charge of a wide swath of land and a good number of troops in the New York and Pennsylvania area.  His plan to surrender everything in his command was uncovered in 1780, bringing him infamy in the colonies and increasing support for the colonial cause.  The British government gave him a commission in the British Army after his treason was uncovered.

Example Question #1 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From Pre Columbian History To 1789

The principal result of the French and Indian wars were __________.

Possible Answers:

confirmation of a French territorial presence in Canada

negotiation of a settlement regarding territorial claims by Native American tribes

a large expansion of British territorial authority in North America

increased animosity between various Native American tribes in the New England colonies

increased animosity between the British colonies in North America

Correct answer:

a large expansion of British territorial authority in North America

Explanation:

Fought between 1754 and 1763, the French and Indian War was the North American theater of a larger conflict between European powers known as the Seven Years' War. Great Britain and France were the principal adversaries in North America, with various Native American groups siding with each European power. The final result was a resounding win for Britain, with France completely leaving the St. Lawrence River in present day Canada and ceding that territory to Britain. The War also saw the first signs of unity between the British colonies in North America, and an increased focus on colonial political issues.

Example Question #3 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From Pre Columbian History To 1789

What was the main effect of the British victory in the French and Indian War (1754-1763)?

Possible Answers:

The Netherlands took possession of Florida.

France gained possession of Montreal.

France lost all of its possessions in North America.

Great Britain gained possession of Mexico.

The Netherlands lost all territories in the Western Hemisphere.

Correct answer:

France lost all of its possessions in North America.

Explanation:

The French and Indian War was part of a larger Anglo-French conflict.  The British invested more resources in North America and defeated the French in Canada by invading and conquering Montreal.  This led to the stripping of all French territory in North America.

Example Question #2 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From Pre Columbian History To 1789

The effect of George Washington's encampment at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777–1778 was __________.

Possible Answers:

alienation of the French and German allies of the Continental Congress

war with Prussia

distrust of George Washington by the Continental Congress, leading to his dismissal as Commander in Chief

a strengthening of the Continental Army into a force capable of fighting the British

immediate rout of the British Army at Philadelphia

Correct answer:

a strengthening of the Continental Army into a force capable of fighting the British

Explanation:

The early part of the Revolutionary War saw mostly British victories and a distinct lack of obvious Colonial successes. In late 1777, Washington took his under trained and ill-formed Continental Army to Valley Forge for an encampment, some 20 miles from Philadelphia, still held by British troops. Over six months at Valley Forge, cold, disease, and poor morale all weakened the Army; however, Washington held firm, used the Prussian Officer Baron von Steuben train his soldiers, and allowed the Continental Congress to officially agree on an alliance with France.

Therefore the winter at Valley Forge strengthened the Continental Army into a force that could win the Revolution.

Example Question #3 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From Pre Columbian History To 1789

What was the most significant result for the British Colonies in North America from the Treaty of Breda (1667)?

Possible Answers:

The French renounced all of their claims to North American territories

The English lost control of their northern territories in America to the French

The Dutch gained control of territory throughout the mid-Atlantic at the expense of the English

Control and possession of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam was ceded to the English

Spanish possession of Florida was officially confirmed and recognized

Correct answer:

Control and possession of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam was ceded to the English

Explanation:

The Treaty of Breda ended a worldwide conflict between European powers, which essentially froze all territorial gains made by every power. Most significantly for North America, the Dutch ceded their colony of New Amsterdam, which the English immediately renamed New York, after the English city and the brother of the King, James, Duke of York. Controlling New York Harbor gave the English an unbroken line of colonies across the Atlantic coast, strengthening their hold even more over North America.

Example Question #6 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From Pre Columbian History To 1789

President George Washington had a foreign policy of Manifest Destiny during his presidency. 

Possible Answers:

False, Washington was a supporter of ceding U.S territory in order to concentrate power

True, Washington was a strong supporter of Manifest Destiny, as reflected by his starting the war of 1812

False, Washington's foreign policy position was generally neutral

None of these

Correct answer:

False, Washington's foreign policy position was generally neutral

Explanation:

President Washington had a foreign policy stance of neutrality during his presidency.  Manifest Destiny was a foreign policy initiative adopted by James Madison, starting with the War of 1812.

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