SAT II US History : Summary of U.S. Foreign Policy from 1790 to 1898

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II US History

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From 1790 To 1898

Which of these statements best summarizes the Monroe Doctrine of 1823?

Possible Answers:
The United States would not allow the creation of any new colonies in the Western Hemisphere, and would actively intervene to help provide self-government for those colonies already in existence
None of those mentioned
The United States would not allow the creation of any new colonies in the Western Hemisphere, but likewise would not intervene in those colonies that already existed
The United States would protect the institution of slavery and allow its expansion into new territories to ensure the continued loyalty of the Southern states
The United States would slowly contain the slave trade, to prevent its expansion into new territories in the hope that it would eventually die out
Correct answer: The United States would not allow the creation of any new colonies in the Western Hemisphere, but likewise would not intervene in those colonies that already existed
Explanation:

The Monroe Doctrine, issued in 1823, stated that the Western Hemisphere was now, and forever, off limits to the European powers. At the time, much of Latin America was beginning to gain independence from a much weakened Spanish Empire and the United States wanted to ensure that a separate European power – such as England or France, would not take the place of Spain. The Doctrine also assured Europe that the United States would not intervene in the affairs of European nations elsewhere in the world.

Example Question #2 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From 1790 To 1898

Which of these was not a consequence of the Spanish-American War?

Possible Answers:
The independence of Cuba
These were all consequences of the Spanish-American War
The effectual end of the Spanish Empire
American annexation of the Philippines
American annexation of Puerto Rico
Correct answer: These were all consequences of the Spanish-American War
Explanation:

The Spanish-American War lasted a mere three months, and resulted in the deaths of relatively few Americans. As a result it was roundly viewed as a spectacular success in the United States. After the destruction of their fleet, and battle losses in Cuba and the Southern Pacific, the Spanish sued for peace. The Americans agreed on the terms that Cuba should be liberated from Spanish rule (it was placed temporarily under American control, but gained full independence four years later), and that America would annex Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. Defeat in the war and substantial loss of territory spelled the effectual end of Spain as a global power. Therefore, all the answer choices here are correct. Additionally, the war spelled an ascension to world power status for the United States and helped quell social unrest domestically. 

Example Question #3 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From 1790 To 1898

Which 1794 treaty, between the United States and Britain, helped to resolve some of the lingering tensions from the Revolutionary War?

Possible Answers:

Jay Treaty 

Monroe Treaty

Pinckney Treaty 

Treaty of Paris

Treaty of Ghent 

Correct answer:

Jay Treaty 

Explanation:

The Jay Treaty, signed in 1794, was a successful attempt by the United States and the British Empire to avert war and resolve some disputes that had existed since the signing of the Treaty of Paris, eleven years prior. The Treaty assured the United States that the British would abandon their forts and military stations still held in American territory. It also granted the United States certain trading rights with British possessions, in exchange for British rights to American cotton. The Jay Treaty successfully averted war, but an attempt at a replacement treaty ten years later failed and, in 1812, the United States and Britain would fight a second war in an attempt to resolve their existing differences. The Jay Treaty was also crucial in solidifying the early identities of the Federalists (pro-big business; pro-British) and the Democratic-Republicans (pro-agriculture; pro-French). 

Example Question #4 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From 1790 To 1898

The Chesapeake-Leopard Incident __________.

Possible Answers:

resolved the territorial disputes between France and the United States

resulted in the massacre of thousands of Native Americans

escalated tensions between Great Britain and the United States 

caused disharmony among the African-American population 

terminated the political career of Aaron Burr

Correct answer:

escalated tensions between Great Britain and the United States 

Explanation:

The Chesapeake-Leopard Incident was a brief naval conflict that occurred between Great Britain and the United States in 1807. The British HMS Leopard attacked and boarded the USS Chesapeake to capture and try deserters. This policy of impressment was common practice in the British Empire, but, to most Americans, the attack represented an insulting incursion upon American sovereignty. The incident escalated tensions between Britain and the United States almost to the point of war, but Congress balked at open warfare with the British Empire and Jefferson issued the Embargo of 1807. War would have to wait a further five years of escalating tensions and naval engagements. 

Example Question #5 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From 1790 To 1898

The Aroostook War was between __________.

Possible Answers:

American and Mexican settlers in Texas

the British and the French in Nova Scotia

Native-Americans and French settlers in Quebec

British and American forces in Maine 

Native-Americans and American settlers in Ohio

Correct answer:

British and American forces in Maine 

Explanation:

The Aroostook War was an international incident between the British and the United States. Both sides claimed greater territory in the New Brunswick and Maine region that the other side was willing to concede. The word “war” was used somewhat ironically, as conflict never broke out, but forces from both sides were stationed prepared for conflict. Eventually a diplomatic resolution was worked out in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842. 

Example Question #6 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From 1790 To 1898

The Treaty of Wang Hya, signed in 1844 ___________.

Possible Answers:

ended the Boxer Rebellion

granted Chinese mainland territory to Japan

was broken during the outbreak of the First Opium War

granted exclusive Chinese trading rights to the British Empire

represented the first trade agreement between China and the United States

Correct answer:

represented the first trade agreement between China and the United States

Explanation:

The Treaty of Wang Hya was signed between the United States and China in 1844. The treaty allowed American merchants to trade in Chinese ports and goods. It also placed the United States on an equal relationship with China as only Britain had previously enjoyed. It represents the first of a series of attempts to better relations between the United States and China. 

Example Question #7 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From 1790 To 1898

The Lewis and Clark Expedition traveled in the territory acquired in __________.

Possible Answers:

the War of 1812

the Gadsden Purchase

the Revolutionary War

the French and Indian War

the Lousiana Purchase

Correct answer:

the Lousiana Purchase

Explanation:

French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, needing to finance his wars across Europe, sold all remaining French possessions in America to the United States in 1803. This land went from New Orleans, up the Mississippi River, and across to the Rocky Mountains. President Thomas Jefferson had already sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark at the head of an expedition to explore much of this territory for the US government in late 1802. Lewis and Clark actually went further than the new Louisiana Territory, and made the Pacific.

Example Question #8 : Summary Of U.S. Foreign Policy From 1790 To 1898

The Monroe Doctrine established what principle of American foreign policy?

Possible Answers:

That the United States would assist European nations in efforts to colonize territories in North or South America.

That the United States would view any attempt by a European nation to colonize or otherwise interfere with any nation-states in North or South America as an act of aggression, provoking United States intervention.

That the United States would freely allow any European nation to colonize all lands in North and South America they wished.

That the United States would attempt to colonize all nations in North or South America that were unclaimed by European nations.

That the United States only objected to any colonization efforts in North or South America by England, but welcomed colonization efforts by all other European nations.

Correct answer:

That the United States would view any attempt by a European nation to colonize or otherwise interfere with any nation-states in North or South America as an act of aggression, provoking United States intervention.

Explanation:

President James Monroe outlined the Monroe Doctrine in his seventh State of the Union in December 1823.  Responding to various colonial revolutions throughout the Americas, Monroe wished to establish solidarity with the young republics in North and South America, as well as protecting American interests from European incursions.

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