SAT II US History : Cause and Effect in Social History from Pre-Columbian History to 1789

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II US History

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Cause And Effect In Social History From Pre Columbian History To 1789

What was one consequence of the French-Indian Wars that would work to the colonists’ advantage moving forward?

Possible Answers:
The French and the colonists became more closely linked, leading to a revolutionary war-time alliance
The colonial militia gained fighting experience and witnessed that the British could be beaten in battle
The British government was forced to repeal many of the strict tax and tariff laws in an accord with the colonial militia
French loss of territory West of the Mississippi lead to a free expansion of colonial settlers westward
Native Americans were co-opted into the military organization and thus were more closely linked with the colonists
Correct answer: The colonial militia gained fighting experience and witnessed that the British could be beaten in battle
Explanation:

The experience of the colonial militia fighting the French-Indian war would prove invaluable when it came time to call in the militias for the Revolution. Without this conflict they might have remained disorganized and unaccustomed to battle. Furthermore, it helped embolden many, who might have otherwise erred, that the British could be beaten in battle. The French would come to the colonists’ aid in the Revolutionary War, but it was not due to this conflict – where they fought bloodily opposite one another. Native Americans were co-opted as part of the struggle, but hardly found themselves included in the political or social discourse after peace had been made. The British government, far from repealing harsh taxes and tariffs, imposed significantly more obtrusive ones in order to recoup the money lost in war. Finally, the French did lose the Louisiana territory, but it was ceded to the Spanish, not the British, who remained as much an obstacle to Western expansion as had the French. 

Example Question #1 : Cause And Effect In Social History From Pre Columbian History To 1789

Which of the following was NOT a reason Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella financed Christopher Columbus' initial voyage in 1492?

Possible Answers:

Spain wished to settle the Americas before its European rivals.

Ferdinand and Isabella believed Columbus might find gold and other precious metals.

Columbus and the Spanish Monarchs sought to spread Christianity into Asia.

Columbus was seeking a quicker route to Asia than the Eastward trip around Africa.

Spain desired to have a special opportunity to import spices from Asian markets.

Correct answer:

Spain wished to settle the Americas before its European rivals.

Explanation:

The key argument for Columbus' voyage west across the Atlantic Ocean was to find a shorter route to the Far East, which was importing spices and precious metals across the Eurasian landmass to Western Europe. The Catholic Church was also attempting to missionize into Asia. Most learned people in the late fifteenth century believed the earth was round. Where Columbus disagreed with the consensus was in his belief the Earth was much smaller. Many scholars at the time knew just how big the earth was, but did not believe there was a landmass between Japan and Western Europe. Columbus believed he had reached Indonesia when he landed in the Caribbean, and never thought he had discovered a new Continent.

Example Question #2 : Cause And Effect In Social History From Pre Columbian History To 1789

Which Constitutional Amendment protects United States citizens from unreasonable search and seizure?

Possible Answers:

Fourth 

Sixteenth 

Sixth 

Fifth 

Seventeenth 

Correct answer:

Fourth 

Explanation:

The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects United States citizens from unreasonable search and seizure of property. In practical application it requires law enforcement to provide a warrant and valid cause before any invasion of privacy can take place. The Fourth Amendment was added to the Bill of Rights in response to British abuses of writs of assistance, which, in pre-Revolutionary America, allowed British colonial officials to inspect property whenever they pleased.

Example Question #4 : Cause And Effect In Social History From Pre Columbian History To 1789

The Eighth Amendment prohibits __________.

Possible Answers:

the President from serving more than two terms

double jeopardy

judicial review 

cruel and unusual punishment 

the personal consumption of alcohol 

Correct answer:

cruel and unusual punishment 

Explanation:

The Eighth Amendment prohibits the use of “cruel and unusual punishment” when dealing with criminal practice. The Amendment has its roots in British common law and later the British Bill of Rights. The terms "cruel and unusual" are somewhat vague and open to interpretation. As a result, throughout American history, legal and judicial theorists have offered competing definitions of cruel and unusual; however, it is generally considered to prohibit mental and physical torture, as well as dehumanizing and humiliating treatment. 

Example Question #5 : Cause And Effect In Social History From Pre Columbian History To 1789

Which Constitutional Amendment prevents the forced quartering of soldiers in the houses of ordinary citizens?

Possible Answers:

Third 

Twelfth 

Fourteenth 

Fifth 

Eighth 

Correct answer:

Third 

Explanation:

During British colonial rule many Americans living on the frontiers were forced to house British soldiers. This practice was particularly common during the French-Indian Wars in the middle of the eighteenth century. The economic and social strain of this situation was one of the motivating factors behind the outbreak of revolution. After colonial rule was overthrown, the new United States government sought to prohibit forced quartering in the Constitution. This was achieved with the passage of the Third Amendment. 

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