SAT II Literature : Context, Speaker, and Addressee: Prose

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II Literature

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Context, Speaker, And Addressee: Prose

Passage adapted from “Reconstruction” by Frederick Douglass (1866)

Without attempting to settle here the metaphysical and somewhat theological question (about which so much has already been said and written), whether once in the Union means always in the Union—agreeably to the formula, “Once in grace always in grace”—it is obvious to common sense that the rebellious States stand today, in point of law, precisely where they stood when, exhausted, beaten, conquered, they fell powerless at the feet of Federal authority. Their State governments were overthrown, and the lives and property of the leaders of the Rebellion were forfeited. In reconstructing the institutions of these shattered and overthrown States, Congress should begin with a clean slate, and make clean work of it.

Let there be no hesitation. It would be a cowardly deference to a defeated and treacherous President, if any account were made of the illegitimate, one-sided, sham governments hurried into existence for a malign purpose in the absence of Congress. These pretended governments, which were never submitted to the people, and from participation in which four millions of the loyal people were excluded by Presidential order, should now be treated according to their true character, as shams and impositions, and supplanted by true and legitimate governments, in the formation of which loyal men, black and white, shall participate.

It is not, however, within the scope of this paper to point out the precise steps to be taken, and the means to be employed. The people are less concerned about these than the grand end to be attained. They demand such a reconstruction as shall put an end to the present anarchical state of things in the late rebellious States—where frightful murders and wholesale massacres are perpetrated in the very presence of Federal soldiers. This horrible business they require shall cease. They want a reconstruction such as will protect loyal men, black and white, in their persons and property; such a one as will cause Northern industry, Northern capital, and Northern civilization to flow into the South, and make a man from New England as much at home in Carolina as elsewhere in the Republic. No Chinese wall can now be tolerated. The South must be opened to the light of law and liberty, and this session of Congress is relied upon to accomplish this important work.

Which of the following describes Douglass's feelings about the governments that were established in rebellious territories?

Possible Answers:

Dismissal

Gregariousness

Dolor

Zealotry

Disdain

Correct answer:

Disdain

Explanation:

Note the adjectives used in the second paragraph to describe the governments that were created during the rebellion. Douglass calls them "illegitimate," "one-sided," and "sham." He is not expressing mere dislike or distaste for these governments. He has utter disdain for them. Indeed, he says that any president that would respect these governments would be both a coward and be treacherous!

Example Question #2 : Other Author And Tone Questions

Passage adapted from Cape Cod by Henry David Thoreau (1865)

Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Charleston, New Orleans, and the rest, are the names of wharves projecting into the sea (surrounded by the shops and dwellings of the merchants), good places to take in and to discharge a cargo (to land the products of other climes and load the exports of our own). I see a great many barrels and fig-drums, piles of wood for umbrella-sticks, blocks of granite and ice, great heaps of goods, and the means of packing and conveying them, much wrapping-paper and twine, many crates and hogsheads and trucks, and that is Boston. The more barrels, the more Boston. The museums and scientific societies and libraries are accidental. They gather around the sands to save carting. The wharf-rats and customhouse officers, and broken-down poets, seeking a fortune amid the barrels. Their better or worse lyceums, and preachings, and doctorings, these, too, are accidental, and the malls of commons are always small potatoes....

When we reached Boston that October, I had a gill of Provincetown sand in my shoes, and at Concord there was still enough left to sand my pages for many a day; and I seemed to hear the sea roar, as if I lived in a shell, for a week afterward.

The places which I have described may seem strange and remote to my townsmen, indeed, from Boston to Provincetown is twice as far as from England to France; yet step into the cars, and in six hours you may stand on those four planks, and see the Cape which Gosnold is said to have discovered, and which I have so poorly described. If you had started when I first advised you, you might have seen our tracks in the sand, still fresh, and reaching all the way from the Nauset Lights to Race Point, some thirty miles, for at every step we made an impression on the Cape, though we were not aware of it, and though our account may have made no impression on your minds. But what is our account? In it there is no roar, no beach-birds, no tow-cloth.

In the first paragraph, the author's impression of Boston can be summarized as ___________________.

Possible Answers:

an intellectual place full of art and culture

an economically depressed area

a quiet coastal town

a place of debauchery and sin

a busy place of trade and industry

Correct answer:

a busy place of trade and industry

Explanation:

This question asks you to interpret the author's description of Boston. The first paragraph is made up of details that give an impression of a busy place of trade and industry. The author states, "The more barrels, the more Boston," showing that he equates Boston with its trade and industry. Since he states that "museums and scientific societies and libraries are accidental," it is not correct to say that he considers Boston a place of intellect and culture. He describes Boston as a busy harbor city, not a quiet coastal town. This description of the fast pace of trade does not give an impression of economic depression, but rather of economic success. The author also does not mention sin and debauchery, focusing instead on economic elements. 

Example Question #2 : Context, Speaker, And Addressee: Prose

. . . Suffering is one very long moment. We cannot divide it by seasons. We can only record its moods, and chronicle their return. With us time itself does not progress. It revolves. It seems to circle round one centre of pain. The paralysing immobility of a life every circumstance of which is regulated after an unchangeable pattern, so that we eat and drink and lie down and pray, or kneel at least for prayer, according to the inflexible laws of an iron formula: this immobile quality, that makes each dreadful day in the very minutest detail like its brother, seems to communicate itself to those external forces the very essence of whose existence is ceaseless change. Of seed-time or harvest, of the reapers bending over the corn, or the grape gatherers threading through the vines, of the grass in the orchard made white with broken blossoms or strewn with fallen fruit: of these we know nothing and can know nothing.

For us there is only one season, the season of sorrow. The very sun and moon seem taken from us. Outside, the day may be blue and gold, but the light that creeps down through the thickly-muffled glass of the small iron-barred window beneath which one sits is grey and niggard. It is always twilight in one’s cell, as it is always twilight in one’s heart. And in the sphere of thought, no less than in the sphere of time, motion is no more. The thing that you personally have long ago forgotten, or can easily forget, is happening to me now, and will happen to me again to-morrow. Remember this, and you will be able to understand a little of why I am writing, and in this manner writing. . . .

(1897)

From the end of the second paragraph, it is clear that the addressee is _________________.

Possible Answers:

a person the speaker has never met

a non-specific audience

a person who has absolutely never suffered

a former lover

a person who experienced something similar a long time ago

Correct answer:

a person who experienced something similar a long time ago

Explanation:

This is the essential sentence for understanding who the addressee of this passage is: " The thing that you personally have long ago forgotten, or can easily forget, is happening to me now, and will happen to me again to-morrow." From this alone, it is possible to infer that the author is writing to someone specific (not a general audience), and someone he has met before. From this and the sentence that follows it, it is also possible to conclude that the addressee is someone who experienced, long ago, something similar to what the speaker is presently experiencing.

Passage excerpted from Oscar Wilde's De Profundis (1897).

Example Question #8 : Interpreting The Passage

Adapted from Notes from the Underground (1864) in White Nights and Other Stories by Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1919, trans. Garnett)

"Ha! ha! ha! But you know there is no such thing as choice in reality, say what you like," you will interpose with a chuckle. "Science has succeeded in so far analyzing man that we know already that choice and what is called freedom of will is nothing else than—"

Stay, gentlemen, I meant to begin with that myself. I confess, I was rather frightened. I was just going to say that the devil only knows what choice depends on, and that perhaps that was a very good thing, but I remembered the teaching of science . . . and pulled myself up. And here you have begun upon it. Indeed, if there really is some day discovered a formula for all our desires and caprices—that is, an explanation of what they depend upon, by what laws they arise, how they develop, what they are aiming at in one case and in another and so on, that is a real mathematical formula—then, most likely, man will at once cease to feel desire, indeed, he will be certain to. For who would want to choose by rule? Besides, he will at once be transformed from a human being into an organ-stop or something of the sort; for what is a man without desires, without free will and without choice, if not a stop in an organ? What do you think? Let us reckon the chances—can such a thing happen or not?

"H'm!" you decide. "Our choice is usually mistaken from a false view of our advantage. We sometimes choose absolute nonsense because in our foolishness we see in that nonsense the easiest means for attaining a supposed advantage. But when all that is explained and worked out on paper (which is perfectly possible, for it is contemptible and senseless to suppose that some laws of nature man will never understand), then certainly so-called desires will no longer exist. For if a desire should come into conflict with reason we shall then reason and not desire, because it will be impossible retaining our reason to be SENSELESS in our desires, and in that way knowingly act against reason and desire to injure ourselves. And as all choice and reasoning can be really calculated—because there will some day be discovered the laws of our so-called free will—so, joking apart, there may one day be something like a table constructed of them, so that we really shall choose in accordance with it. If, for instance, some day they calculate and prove to me that I made a long nose at someone because I could not help making a long nose at him and that I had to do it in that particular way, what FREEDOM is left me, especially if I am a learned man and have taken my degree somewhere? Then I should be able to calculate my whole life for thirty years beforehand. In short, if this could be arranged there would be nothing left for us to do; anyway, we should have to understand that. And, in fact, we ought unwearyingly to repeat to ourselves that at such and such a time and in such and such circumstances nature does not ask our leave; that we have got to take her as she is and not fashion her to suit our fancy, and if we really aspire to formulas and tables of rules, and well, even . . . to the chemical retort, there's no help for it, we must accept the retort too, or else it will be accepted without our consent. . . ."

Which of the following best describes the speaker?

Possible Answers:

Intelligent

Depressed

Cynical

Vexed

Joyful

Correct answer:

Cynical

Explanation:

The speaker opens up by laughing about the weighty matters being discussed in the passage. Throughout the passage, he is very light-hearted about such deep and important human matters, and seems to be aware that his outlook is shocking to human sensibilities. This does show some kind of contempt for his interlocutors. Therefore, it is fair to say that he is cynical—in the extended sense of the term, which would mean mocking or contemptuous. This option is at least better than the other ones provided.

Example Question #9 : Motives, Goals, And Actions Of Characters

Adapted from Notes from the Underground (1864) in White Nights and Other Stories by Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1919, trans. Garnett)

"Ha! ha! ha! But you know there is no such thing as choice in reality, say what you like," you will interpose with a chuckle. "Science has succeeded in so far analyzing man that we know already that choice and what is called freedom of will is nothing else than—"

Stay, gentlemen, I meant to begin with that myself. I confess, I was rather frightened. I was just going to say that the devil only knows what choice depends on, and that perhaps that was a very good thing, but I remembered the teaching of science . . . and pulled myself up. And here you have begun upon it. Indeed, if there really is some day discovered a formula for all our desires and caprices—that is, an explanation of what they depend upon, by what laws they arise, how they develop, what they are aiming at in one case and in another and so on, that is a real mathematical formula—then, most likely, man will at once cease to feel desire, indeed, he will be certain to. For who would want to choose by rule? Besides, he will at once be transformed from a human being into an organ-stop or something of the sort; for what is a man without desires, without free will and without choice, if not a stop in an organ? What do you think? Let us reckon the chances—can such a thing happen or not?

"H'm!" you decide. "Our choice is usually mistaken from a false view of our advantage. We sometimes choose absolute nonsense because in our foolishness we see in that nonsense the easiest means for attaining a supposed advantage. But when all that is explained and worked out on paper (which is perfectly possible, for it is contemptible and senseless to suppose that some laws of nature man will never understand), then certainly so-called desires will no longer exist. For if a desire should come into conflict with reason we shall then reason and not desire, because it will be impossible retaining our reason to be SENSELESS in our desires, and in that way knowingly act against reason and desire to injure ourselves. And as all choice and reasoning can be really calculated—because there will some day be discovered the laws of our so-called free will—so, joking apart, there may one day be something like a table constructed of them, so that we really shall choose in accordance with it. If, for instance, some day they calculate and prove to me that I made a long nose at someone because I could not help making a long nose at him and that I had to do it in that particular way, what FREEDOM is left me, especially if I am a learned man and have taken my degree somewhere? Then I should be able to calculate my whole life for thirty years beforehand. In short, if this could be arranged there would be nothing left for us to do; anyway, we should have to understand that. And, in fact, we ought unwearyingly to repeat to ourselves that at such and such a time and in such and such circumstances nature does not ask our leave; that we have got to take her as she is and not fashion her to suit our fancy, and if we really aspire to formulas and tables of rules, and well, even . . . to the chemical retort, there's no help for it, we must accept the retort too, or else it will be accepted without our consent. . . ."

In summary, what is the speaker doing in this passage?

Possible Answers:

Contrasting the claims of two outlooks, showing the foolishness of one of them

Consoling friends in the face of a dire outlook

Rhetorically proposing a position to his listeners

Insinuating that a certain outlook is less certain that it appears

Giving a tight scientific argument for a position

Correct answer:

Rhetorically proposing a position to his listeners

Explanation:

Throughout this passage, the speaker is clearly engaging in a kind of rhetoric—trying to convince his listeners that his position is correct. Evidence for this can be found in his light-hearted laugh at the beginning and the way that he entices them by saying, "I confess, I was rather frightened," then attempting to show how he was consoled. Likewise, he includes himself with his listeners, saying, "Let us reckon the chances . . ." Throughout the long last paragraph, he speaks in a very forceful way about his opinions on these matters. All of these details work together to form a kind of rhetoric for his beliefs. He clearly wants his listeners to think that he is correct in the end.

Example Question #3 : Context, Speaker, And Addressee: Prose

Passage adapted from “Reconstruction” by Frederick Douglass (1866)

Without attempting to settle here the metaphysical and somewhat theological question (about which so much has already been said and written), whether once in the Union means always in the Union—agreeably to the formula, “Once in grace always in grace”—it is obvious to common sense that the rebellious States stand today, in point of law, precisely where they stood when, exhausted, beaten, conquered, they fell powerless at the feet of Federal authority. Their State governments were overthrown, and the lives and property of the leaders of the Rebellion were forfeited. In reconstructing the institutions of these shattered and overthrown States, Congress should begin with a clean slate, and make clean work of it.

Let there be no hesitation. It would be a cowardly deference to a defeated and treacherous President, if any account were made of the illegitimate, one-sided, sham governments hurried into existence for a malign purpose in the absence of Congress. These pretended governments, which were never submitted to the people, and from participation in which four millions of the loyal people were excluded by Presidential order, should now be treated according to their true character, as shams and impositions, and supplanted by true and legitimate governments, in the formation of which loyal men, black and white, shall participate.

It is not, however, within the scope of this paper to point out the precise steps to be taken, and the means to be employed. The people are less concerned about these than the grand end to be attained. They demand such a reconstruction as shall put an end to the present anarchical state of things in the late rebellious States—where frightful murders and wholesale massacres are perpetrated in the very presence of Federal soldiers. This horrible business they require shall cease. They want a reconstruction such as will protect loyal men, black and white, in their persons and property; such a one as will cause Northern industry, Northern capital, and Northern civilization to flow into the South, and make a man from New England as much at home in Carolina as elsewhere in the Republic. No Chinese wall can now be tolerated. The South must be opened to the light of law and liberty, and this session of Congress is relied upon to accomplish this important work.

How could the goal of the text be summarized?

Possible Answers:

It is a summary of various opinions regarding reconstruction after the American Civil War

It is a matter-of-fact consideration of the problem of reconstruction after the American Civil War

It is a detailed exposition on the problems dealing with reconstruction after the American Civil War

None of these

It is an atheist's perspective on the problem of reconstruction after the American Civil War

Correct answer:

It is a matter-of-fact consideration of the problem of reconstruction after the American Civil War

Explanation:

The passage opens by stating that is not going to deal with matters "metaphysical" or "somewhat theological." The point is that it is not going to go into the deep philosophical reasons involved in the problem of post-war reconstruction. Instead, it is dealing with the basic facts of the case—indeed, without even looking to solve all of the practical issues involved.

Example Question #4 : Context, Speaker, And Addressee: Prose

Adapted from A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift (1729)

The number of souls in this kingdom being usually reckoned one million and a half, of these I calculate there may be about two hundred thousand couple whose wives are breeders; from which number I subtract thirty thousand couples who are able to maintain their own children, although I apprehend there cannot be so many, under the present distresses of the kingdom; but this being granted, there will remain an hundred and seventy thousand breeders. I again subtract fifty thousand for those women who miscarry, or whose children die by accident or disease within the year. There only remains one hundred and twenty thousand children of poor parents annually born. The question therefore is, how this number shall be reared and provided for, which, as I have already said, under the present situation of affairs, is utterly impossible by all the methods hitherto proposed. For we can neither employ them in handicraft or agriculture; we neither build houses (I mean in the country) nor cultivate land: they can very seldom pick up a livelihood by stealing, till they arrive at six years old, except where they are of towardly parts, although I confess they learn the rudiments much earlier, during which time, they can however be properly looked upon only as probationers, as I have been informed by a principal gentleman in the county of Cavan, who protested to me that he never knew above one or two instances under the age of six, even in a part of the kingdom so renowned for the quickest proficiency in that art.

I am assured by our merchants, that a boy or a girl before twelve years old is no salable commodity; and even when they come to this age they will not yield above three pounds, or three pounds and half-a-crown at most on the exchange; which cannot turn to account either to the parents or kingdom, the charge of nutriment and rags having been at least four times that value.

I shall now therefore humbly propose my own thoughts, which I hope will not be liable to the least objection.

I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee or a ragout.

I do therefore humbly offer it to public consideration that of the hundred and twenty thousand children already computed, twenty thousand may be reserved for breed, whereof only one-fourth part to be males; which is more than we allow to sheep, black cattle or swine; and my reason is, that these children are seldom the fruits of marriage, a circumstance not much regarded by our savages, therefore one male will be sufficient to serve four females. That the remaining hundred thousand may, at a year old, be offered in the sale to the persons of quality and fortune through the kingdom; always advising the mother to let them suck plentifully in the last month, so as to render them plump and fat for a good table. A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends; and when the family dines alone, the fore or hind quarter will make a reasonable dish, and seasoned with a little pepper or salt will be very good boiled on the fourth day, especially in winter.

I have reckoned upon a medium that a child just born will weigh 12 pounds, and in a solar year, if tolerably nursed, increaseth to 28 pounds.

I grant this food will be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for landlords, who, as they have already devoured most of the parents, seem to have the best title to the children.

The primary audience for this passage would best be described as __________.

Possible Answers:

implicitly addressing the ruling elites of England

a class of children

directly addressing a small group of royals

directly addressing a rich nation

several prominent poets

Correct answer:

implicitly addressing the ruling elites of England

Explanation:

The audience for this passage is an impoverished nation. Swift directly addresses all of "this state," rather than a specific group of professionals, children, or leaders within that country. The author directly states that his essay is being "humbly offer[ed] [for] public consideration." The use of the term "public," coupled with the subject matter, suggests that the essay's intended audience is lower-income people from his own country. That being said, the implication of the essay is that this public is fundamentally powerless to address the issues discussed. Thus, given the Juvenalian tone of the satire the passage implicitly addresses those with the power to facilitate change.

Example Question #5 : Context, Speaker, And Addressee: Prose

“Now, what I want is, Facts. Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts. Facts alone are wanted in life. Plant nothing else, and root out everything else. You can only form the minds of reasoning animals upon Facts: nothing else will ever be of any service to them.  This is the principle on which I bring up my own children, and this is the principle on which I bring up these children. Stick to Facts, sir!”

… The speaker, and the schoolmaster, and the third grown person present, all backed a little, and swept with their eyes the inclined plane of little vessels then and there arranged in order, ready to have imperial gallons of facts poured into them until they were full to the brim.

Based on paragraph 1, what kind of person is the speaker?

Possible Answers:

Pedant

Curate

Hedonist

Aficionado

Dilettante

Correct answer:

Pedant

Explanation:

A pedant is someone who is a stickler for rules, precision, and educational achievement, and that’s exactly what this speaker is. A hedonist is someone who pursues pleasure, and a dilettante is an amateur practitioner of the arts. A curate is a religious cleric, and an aficionado is an ardent fan or connoisseur. None of these other options accurately describe the speaker here.

Passage adapted from Charles Dickens’s Hard Times (1854)

Example Question #6 : Context, Speaker, And Addressee: Prose

Be not alarmed, Madam, on receiving this letter, by the apprehension of its containing any repetition of those sentiments, or renewal of those offers, which were last night so disgusting to you. I write without any intention of paining you, or humbling myself, by dwelling on wishes, which, for the happiness of both, cannot be too soon forgotten; and the effort which the formation and the perusal of this letter must occasion should have been spared, had not my character required it to be written and read. You must, therefore, pardon the freedom with which I demand your attention; your feelings, I know, will bestow it unwillingly, but I demand it of your justice.

.....

This, madam, is a faithful narrative of every event in which we have been concerned together; and if you do not absolutely reject it as false, you will, I hope, acquit me henceforth of cruelty towards Mr. Wickham. I know not in what manner, under what form of falsehood, he has imposed on you; but his success is not, perhaps, to be wondered at. Ignorant as you previously were of every thing concerning either, detection could not be in your power, and suspicion certainly not in your inclination. You may possibly wonder why all this was not told you last night. But I was not then master enough of myself to know what could or ought to be revealed. For the truth of every thing here related, I can appeal more particularly to the testimony of Colonel Fitzwilliam, who from our near relationship and constant intimacy, and still more as one of the executors of my father's will, has been unavoidably acquainted with every particular of these transactions. If your abhorrence of me should make my assertions valueless, you cannot be prevented by the same cause from confiding in my cousin; and that there may be the possibility of consulting him, I shall endeavour to find some opportunity of putting this letter in your hands in the course of the morning. I will only add, God bless you.

 

(1813)

It can be inferred from the passage that the speaker ___________________.

Possible Answers:

has never met the addressee in person

agrees with the addressee about most things

cares what the addressee thinks about him

has known the addressee for a long time

is going to marry the addressee

Correct answer:

cares what the addressee thinks about him

Explanation:

It is clear from the passage that the speaker "cares what the addressee thinks about him." In the first paragraph the speaker writes that his "character" is what required the letter to be written. That is, he is trying to communicate to the addressee something about his moral standing as a person. In the second paragraph of this excerpt, he pleads with the addressee to "acquit [him]...of cruelty," an attribute which would reflect very badly on him in the eyes of the addressee, regardless of who the addressee may be. From these clues we may conclude that the speaker cares, very much in fact, about what the person reading this letter thinks of him.

Passage adapted from Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen (1813).  

Example Question #7 : Context, Speaker, And Addressee: Prose

Be not alarmed, Madam, on receiving this letter, by the apprehension of its containing any repetition of those sentiments, or renewal of those offers, which were last night so disgusting to you. I write without any intention of paining you, or humbling myself, by dwelling on wishes, which, for the happiness of both, cannot be too soon forgotten; and the effort which the formation and the perusal of this letter must occasion should have been spared, had not my character required it to be written and read. You must, therefore, pardon the freedom with which I demand your attention; your feelings, I know, will bestow it unwillingly, but I demand it of your justice.

.....

This, madam, is a faithful narrative of every event in which we have been concerned together; and if you do not absolutely reject it as false, you will, I hope, acquit me henceforth of cruelty towards Mr. Wickham. I know not in what manner, under what form of falsehood, he has imposed on you; but his success is not, perhaps, to be wondered at. Ignorant as you previously were of every thing concerning either, detection could not be in your power, and suspicion certainly not in your inclination. You may possibly wonder why all this was not told you last night. But I was not then master enough of myself to know what could or ought to be revealed. For the truth of every thing here related, I can appeal more particularly to the testimony of Colonel Fitzwilliam, who from our near relationship and constant intimacy, and still more as one of the executors of my father's will, has been unavoidably acquainted with every particular of these transactions. If your abhorrence of me should make my assertions valueless, you cannot be prevented by the same cause from confiding in my cousin; and that there may be the possibility of consulting him, I shall endeavour to find some opportunity of putting this letter in your hands in the course of the morning. I will only add, God bless you.

 

(1813)

The addressee of this passage is ________________.

Possible Answers:

a man whom the speaker has offended

a woman whom the speaker has offended

a relative of Colonel Fitzwilliam

a woman who used to be the speaker's close friend

the speaker's mother

Correct answer:

a woman whom the speaker has offended

Explanation:

It can be determined from the information provided in this passage that the addressee is both a woman and a person whom the speaker has offended in some way. It is clear that the addressee is a woman because the speaker calls her "madam" twice--once at the beginning of each paragraph. Throughout both paragraphs, the tone and content of the speaker's writing makes it clear that the speaker has offended this "madam." It is very clear in certain places, however, such as at the end of the first paragraph where the speaker says the Madam's "feelings...will bestow [attention] unwillingly."

Passage adapted from Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen (1813).

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