NCLEX : Viral Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Viral Physiology

Which group should not receive the flu virus annually?

Possible Answers:

None of these groups should receive the flu virus annually.

Pregnant women

The elderly

All of these groups should receive the flu virus annually.

Healthy adults older than 18 years old

Correct answer:

All of these groups should receive the flu virus annually.

Explanation:

The flu virus can be either live attenuated or inactivated. The center for disease control and prevention (CDC) recommends giving the flu virus annually to healthy adults, pregnant women, and children older than 6 months of age. The virus is different from year to year, and the vaccine each year represents the most common active forms of the virus. Vaccination is a type of primary prevention.

Example Question #2 : Viral Physiology

Which of the following is the correct sequence of viral replication?

Possible Answers:

Penetration, uncoating, attachment, protein synthesis, assembly, and release

Attachment, penetration, uncoating, protein synthesis, assembly, and release

Penetration, attachment, protein synthesis, uncoating, assembly, and release

Uncoating, attachment, penetration, protein synthesis, assembly, and release

Attachment, uncoating, penetration, protein synthesis, assembly, and release

Correct answer:

Attachment, penetration, uncoating, protein synthesis, assembly, and release

Explanation:

Viral replication takes place in several stages. Once the virus recognizes the target cell, it binds to the cell. The viral attachment protein present on the surface of virion interacts with the cell receptor. Following attachment the virus can penetrate the cell by process of endocytosis or fusion. In the step of uncoating the capsid the envelope is removed and viral nucleic acid is released inside the host cell, so the viral genes become available for transcription.

In the protein synthesis step the process differs according to type of virus and the structure of genome. RNA virus mostly replicates in the cytoplasm. Plus-strand RNA viruses initiate protein synthesis. Minus-strand RNA virus, double-stranded RNA viruses, and DNA viruses initiate nucleic acid synthesis. Protein synthesis in DNA virus replication is divided into early phase and late phase. Once the replication is over the newly synthesized viral protein and nucleic acid is assembled inside the cells. The capsomers are self assembled into capsid. In enveloped virus the viral envelope is added from the cell membrane and becomes associated with nucleocapsid. The newly assembled virus is released from the cell by budding or cell lysis.

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