NCLEX : Symptoms and Tests for Other Conditions

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Symptoms And Tests For Other Conditions

Which of the following causes microcytic hypochromic anemia? 

Possible Answers:

Thalassemia

Iron deficiency

Chronic lead exposure

All of these

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

All of these result in microcytic hypochromic anemia, which is a type of anemia characterized by small red blood cells called microcytes that contain lower concentrations of hemoglobin than healthy red blood cells.

Example Question #2 : Symptoms And Tests For Other Conditions

What is the most significant risk of hyperkalemia (elevated serum potassium)?

Possible Answers:

Respiratory depression

Sudden cardiac death

Weakness, tremors, and cramps

Rhabdomyolysis

Correct answer:

Sudden cardiac death

Explanation:

Mild hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic, but a significant rise if potassium levels above normal can cause fatal heart arrhythmia, resulting in sudden cardiac death. 

Weakness, tremors, and cramps are common symptoms of mild hypokalemia (depressed potassium levels), while respiratory depression and rhabdomyolysis can occur with severe cases of hypokalemia.

Example Question #3 : Symptoms And Tests For Other Conditions

Cranial nerves are important to assess to determine the neurological status of a patient in regards to possible deficits.

All the following cranial nerves should be assessed for proper eye movement and function, including vision except __________.

Possible Answers:

cranial nerve VIII

cranial nerve II

cranial nerve IV

cranial nerve III

cranial nerve VI

Correct answer:

cranial nerve VIII

Explanation:

Cranial nerve VIII is the vestibulocochlear nerve responsible for hearing and balance. It does not control the eye. 

Cranial nerve II is the optic nerve: control vision and acuity; cranial nerve III is the oculomotor nerve, which controls eye movement, pupil reflex, eyelid, and proprioception. Cranial nerve IV is the trochlear nerve, which controls extraocular eye movement as does cranial nerve VI, the abducens.

Example Question #4 : Symptoms And Tests For Other Conditions

A 25-year-old male client presents to the emergency department complaining of severe headache, nausea, vomiting and nuchal rigidity. Nurse recognizes this patient may be experiencing some form of meningitis.

Which test is the most appropriate to determine if this patient is experiencing the bacterial form of meningitis?

Possible Answers:

Blood culture positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae

Cerebral spinal fluid analysis showing elevated protein levels

X-ray of the spine

Cerebral spinal fluid analysis to confirm elevated glucose levels

Computerized tomography scan of the head to assess for increased intracranial pressure

Correct answer:

Cerebral spinal fluid analysis showing elevated protein levels

Explanation:

Cerebral spinal fluid analysis is the best test - elevated protein, decreased glucose levels, with high levels of PMN's (polymorphonuclear cells) are indicative of bacterial meningitis, which is a medical emergency. Blood culture is appropriate but will not yield quick results, computer tomography (CT) scan is also helpful but not priority.

Example Question #5 : Symptoms And Tests For Other Conditions

A patient is severely dehydrated and is being given IV normal saline at a rate of 160 cc per hour. Which of the following laboratory values would you expect to be abnormally elevated in this patient?

Possible Answers:

Hemoglobin

Glucose

Creatinine

White blood count

Mast cell count

Correct answer:

Creatinine

Explanation:

In a dehydrated patient, the BUN and creatinine is often elevated. Creatinine is a marker of kidney function. Elevations in creatinine from baseline are considered kidney injury. Dehydration is decreased circulatory volume to the kidneys. This will result in an elevation of creatinine (and BUN) on laboratory testing. Rehydration therapy with IV fluids will often correct this abnormality.

Example Question #6 : Symptoms And Tests For Other Conditions

What is the medical term for the artificial mechanism by which fluid and toxic solutes are removed from circulation when the kidneys are unable to function?

Possible Answers:

CPAP

Dialysis

BiPAP

Bronchoscopy

Correct answer:

Dialysis

Explanation:

Dialysis is an artificial mechanism used to filter the blood when the kidneys are unable to do so. The two major types are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Dialysis is usually considered in the treatment of chronic kidney disease and toxic overdoses. BiPAP and CPAP are used to help with respirations. Bronchoscopy is used to explore the lung space. 

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