NCLEX : Symptoms and Tests for Cardiovascular Conditions

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Symptoms And Tests For Cardiovascular Conditions

Which of the following is least likely to be a co-morbidity with congestive heart failure?

Possible Answers:

Type II diabetes

Vestibular irregularities

Hypertension

Atrial fibrillation

Correct answer:

Vestibular irregularities

Explanation:

Congestive heart failure tends to be precipitated by hypertension, type II diabetes, nutritional deficiencies such as thiamine, pulmonary disease, and chronic stress. Atrial fibrillation is not generally a causative factor in congestive heart failure, but these conditions are frequently seen together as they share an etiology. Vestibular irregularities are not generally observed in congestive heart failure.

Example Question #2 : Symptoms And Tests For Cardiovascular Conditions

A 50-year-old female presents to emergency room after complaining of chest pain that came on while at home watching television, she thought she was having a heart attack. The nurse proceeds to gather more history about this client. The client does not have a history of coronary artery or heart disease, but does report a history of migraine headaches and Raynaud's disease. There was a previous episode at this hospital where a transient ST segment elevation was identified on her EKG. 

Based on these findings, the nurse might suspect what condition?

Possible Answers:

Silent ischemia

Chronic stable angina

Prinzmetal's angina

Angina decubitus

Unstable angina

Correct answer:

Prinzmetal's angina

Explanation:

The client describes pain at rest without a history of heart disease. This type of chest pain often describes prinzmetal's angina which is a spasm of a major coronary artery and can occur while at rest. Many times the client may have a history of other vasospastic conditions such as Raynaud's. It may be treated with a calcium channel blocker or nitrates. 

 

Example Question #1 : Symptoms And Tests For Cardiovascular Conditions

The nurse works in the emergency department and assesses a patient who is complaining of mid-sternal chest pain. What is the nurse’s first action?

Possible Answers:

Assess the patient's vital signs

Obtain a complete history

Examine the patient's chest and auscultate

Order an electrocardiogram

Notify the physician

Correct answer:

Assess the patient's vital signs

Explanation:

The first nursing action for a patient arriving in distress to the emergency department is always to begin with priority assessments including vital signs. It provides a baseline for the healthcare team to use when further assessment and treatment is implemented. An electrocardiogram may be used later but is not a priority action, and is ordered by the primary care provider and not the nurse. A thorough medical history and physical assessment will be useful but is not the first action the nurse must take. The physician should be notified but the nurse must assess vital signs first.

Example Question #4 : Symptoms And Tests For Cardiovascular Conditions

Which EKG lead localizes to the base of the heart?

Possible Answers:

V5

aVF

I

V1

V6

Correct answer:

aVF

Explanation:

aVF is the main lead that points to the base of the heart (inferiorly). ST segment elevations in this lead help localize the area of infarction and can help identify the coronary artery involved. The precordial leads (V1-V6) do not point towards the base of the heart. Lead I is considered a lateral lead.

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