NCLEX : Other Pharmacological Drugs

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Other Pharmacological Drugs

Allopurinol is used for what condition?

Possible Answers:

Kidney stones

Type II diabetes

Gout

Hypertension

Correct answer:

Gout

Explanation:

Allopurinol is a purine analog and xanthine oxidase inhibitor used in the treatment of chronic gout. 

Example Question #2 : Other Pharmacological Drugs

Which of the following drugs is used in the treatment of osteoporosis?

Possible Answers:

Sitagliptin

Infliximab

Budesonide/formoterol 

Alendronic acid

Correct answer:

Alendronic acid

Explanation:

Alendronic acid (trade name Fosamax) is a bisphosphonate used in the treatment of osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates reduce bone loss by encouraging apoptosis in osteoclasts.

Infliximab is a tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blocker used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and several other autoimmune conditions. Sitagliptin (trade name Januvia) is a diabetes medication. Budesonide/formoterol (trade name Symbicort) is a combination long acting beta agonist and corticosteroid used in the treatment of asthma.

Example Question #3 : Other Pharmacological Drugs

When Allopurinol is prescribed to a client, it is best for the nurse to include the following instructions:

Possible Answers:

To drink 3000 mL of fluid a day

To take the medication on an empty stomach

That the effect of the medication will occur immediately

That if swelling of the lips occurs, this is a normal expected response

Correct answer:

To drink 3000 mL of fluid a day

Explanation:

The nurse should instruct a patient on Allopurinol to drink 3000 mL of fluid a day to reduce the risk of kidney stone formation.

Example Question #4 : Other Pharmacological Drugs

The client prescribed cholestyramine has been given instructions for taking the medication. The nurse would recognize a need for further instructions if the client said:

Possible Answers:

A high fiber diet is important while taking this medication

This medication will help lower my cholesterol

This medication should only be taken with water

I will store the medication at room temperature

Correct answer:

This medication should only be taken with water

Explanation:

Cholestyramine should be taken with meals and water. The dosage should be administered once or twice daily, with a maximum of six times daily. Cholestyramine binds bile in the gastrointestinal tract to prevent its reabsorption.

Example Question #5 : Other Pharmacological Drugs

Which of the following is a potential side effect of prednisone?

Possible Answers:

Adrenal suppression

Hyperglycemia and diabetes

All of these

Weight gain

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

There are many potential side effects of prednisone, including all those listed in the answer choices, headache, fatigue, acne, seizures, upset stomach, changes in mood, difficulty breathing, dry cough, vomiting, depression, heartburn, muscle weakness, irregular heart beat, tremors, inability to properly thermoregulate, and many others. 

Example Question #6 : Other Pharmacological Drugs

The nurse anticipates administration of milk of magnesia (magnesium hydroxide). Which of the following patient conditions may affect the nurse’s decision to administer magnesium hydroxide?

Possible Answers:

Reflex esophagitis

Peptic ulcer

Constipation

Indigestion

Stress ulcer

Correct answer:

Constipation

Explanation:

The nurse must consider potential side effects of medications before administering them. Constipation, diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, and acid rebound are potential side effects of magnesium hydroxide. A dose of magnesium hydroxide may potentially exacerbate the patient’s current condition if he is constipated. As an antacid, magnesium hydroxide is indicated for peptic ulcers, stress ulcers, indigestion, and reflex esophagitis.

Example Question #7 : Other Pharmacological Drugs

The psychiatric nurse cares for a patient with major depressive disorder admitted after a suicide attempt. The primary care provider has prescribed fluoxetine, which the patient has never taken before. Which of the following statements is important for the nurse to say to the patient?

Possible Answers:

“This medication takes at least 4 weeks to work.”

“You should take this medication in the morning because it can cause insomnia.”

“You may experience changes in appetite and weight.”

“You could begin to feel more anxious.”

“You may experience changes in your bowel movements such as diarrhea or constipation.”

Correct answer:

“This medication takes at least 4 weeks to work.”

Explanation:

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly prescribed to patients diagnosed with depression. It may cause changes in appetite and weight, increase anxiety and insomnia, or cause bradycardia or palpitations. It is most important for the nurse to educate the patient that the therapeutic effect of fluoxetine may take up to 4 weeks, as the patient has a previous suicide attempt, and may experience suicide ideation before the effect occurs.

Example Question #8 : Other Pharmacological Drugs

The nurse prepares to administer medications on the psychiatric unit. The patient is prescribed phenelzine sulfate for depression. Which of the following is the nurse’s priority education when administering this medication?

Possible Answers:

Wear sunblock

Avoid foods with tyramine

Avoid tricyclic medications until 3 weeks after stopping

Potentiates alcohol and other medications

Effect of medication takes 3-4 weeks to work

Correct answer:

Avoid foods with tyramine

Explanation:

Phenelzine is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that treats depression. Patients who take MAOIs should avoid foods with tyramine due to an increased risk for hypertensive crisis. Tyramine-rich foods include those that are fermented, heavily marinated, pickled, smoked, or heavily marinated, also, chocolate and alcoholic beverages have significant amounts of tyramine. In addition to education about diet modification, nurses must educate patients of the signs of hypertensive crisis, which are headache, sweating, palpitations, stiff neck, and intracranial hemorrhage. All of the other listed patient educations are essential, but the priority is to avoid tyramine due to the risk for hypertensive crisis, which is life-threatening.

Example Question #9 : Other Pharmacological Drugs

A client being treated for type II diabetes has recently been prescribed an oral hyperglycemic medication and has inquired how the medications will keep his blood sugar levels under control. The nurse informs the patient the medication prescribed will reduce glucose production by the liver and increase insulin sensitivity but will not increase insulin production.

Based on this description, which diabetic medication has this client been prescribed?

Possible Answers:

Metformin

Sitagliptin

Glipizide

Glyburide

Exenatide

Correct answer:

Metformin

Explanation:

The only medication mentioned that does not actually stimulate insulin production is Metformin. This medication is a Biguanide, it's mechanism of action includes decreasing hepatic glucose production, and increases insulin sensitivity.

Example Question #10 : Other Pharmacological Drugs

A 26 year old pregnant client presents to labor and delivery in premature labor, the doctor has ordered a tocolytic medication to help in stopping the contractions.

Which of the following medications is effective in managing premature labor contractions?

Possible Answers:

Terbutaline sulfate

Calcium gluconate

Misoprostol

Naprosyn

Pitocin

Correct answer:

Terbutaline sulfate

Explanation:

Terbutaline sulfate is a tocolytic agent, as well as a bronchodilator effective in stopping premature labor contractions. Both Pitocin and Misoprostol are used to induce labor, calcium gluconate in labor is used to reverse magnesium sulfate another tocolytic. Naprosyn is an NSAID. 

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