NCLEX : Other Immune Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Other Immune Physiology

Which of the following cytokines acts as a chemoattractant for neutrophils?

Possible Answers:

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

Interleukin-8

Interleukin-1

Interleukin-6

Correct answer:

Interleukin-8

Explanation:

Interleukins (IL) are cytokines that play a role in signaling the immune cells. IL-8 is produced mainly by macrophage and dendritic cells and plays a major role in inflammation as a chemoattractant for neutrophils. IL-1 and IL-6 both induce acute phase proteins. TNF-alpha is involved in the acute phase reaction. It is an endogenous pyrogen (meaning it induces fever) and is also involved in apoptosis and tumor inhibition. 

Example Question #2 : Other Immune Physiology

What antibacterial proteins are contained in tears?

Possible Answers:

DEFA1

Cathelicidin

Defensin-5

Lysozymes

Correct answer:

Lysozymes

Explanation:

Lysozymes are a group of defense enzymes found in tears, saliva, mucus, and breast milk. It is considered part of our innate immune systems, as its presence in tears prevents infectious conjunctivitis. Cathelicidin, Defensin-5, and DEFA1 are found in the lysosomes of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) and macrophages.

Example Question #3 : Other Immune Physiology

All of the following cells express major histocompatibility complex 1 (MHC-1) except __________.

Possible Answers:

Neutrophils

Hepatic cells

Red blood cells

Epithelial cells

Correct answer:

Red blood cells

Explanation:

Major histocompatibility complex 1 in a membrane protein that binds to peptide fragments from pathogens such as viruses and bacteria and then displays them on the cell surface in order to alert other immune cells of the presence and nature of infection.

All cells with nuclei express MHC-1. Red blood cells do not have nuclei, and do not express MHC-1 on membranes.

Example Question #4 : Other Immune Physiology

Which of the following cells produce antibodies?

Possible Answers:

B cells

All of these

Natural killer cells

T cells

Correct answer:

B cells

Explanation:

Antibodies are only produced by B cells, specifically by a type of specialized B cell called a plasma cell. B cells belong to a broader category of leukocytes known as lymphocytes, which are agranulocytes.

Example Question #5 : Other Immune Physiology

In what tissue do T lymphocytes mature?

Possible Answers:

The bone marrow

The thymus 

The liver

The spleen

Correct answer:

The thymus 

Explanation:

T lymphocytes are so titled because they mature in the thymus, unlike B lymphocytes, which mature in the bone marrow. The thymus is located in the anterior superior mediastinum, ventral to the heart and dorsal to the sternum. It is most active in the neonatal and pre-adolescent periods, afterwards, it degenerates and is replaced with adipose tissue. 

Example Question #6 : Other Immune Physiology

Lymphoid progenitors are produced in which of the following tissues?

Possible Answers:

All of these

The bone marrow

Gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT)

The liver

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Lymphoid progenitor cells are produced in all of the following tissues: the liver, the bone marrow, spleen, and gut associated lymphoid tissue (mainly found in the liver and intestines). However, note that the vast majority of all blood cells are produced in the red bone marrow of long bones by hematopoietic stem cells. 

Example Question #7 : Other Immune Physiology

Which immune cell is specialized for immunity against multicellular parasites?

Possible Answers:

Monocytes

Eosinophils

Natural killer cells

Basophils

Correct answer:

Eosinophils

Explanation:

While all of the cells listed may have some indirect involvement in the overall response to a parasitic infection, eosinophils are the only immune cells that are specialized to respond to multicellular parasites, especially helminths such as hookworms and pinworms. 

Example Question #8 : Other Immune Physiology

Mast cells contain high concentrations of which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Histamine

Heparin

Tryptase

All of these

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Mast cells are rich in granules that contain high concentrations of heparin, histamine, and trypsin, among other preformed proteases. These granules also contain serotonin and various eicosanoids. The function of mast cells is primarily to regulate immune (inflammatory) responses to allergens.

Example Question #9 : Other Immune Physiology

Which of the following would be considered to part of nonspecific immunity?

Possible Answers:

CD8 T cells

Memory cells

Macrophages

Plasma cells

Correct answer:

Macrophages

Explanation:

Macrophages, the main blood cells responsible for phagocytosis of debris, bacteria, and virally infected cells, are part of the nonspecific immune response. While they are able to recognize self versus non-self proteins, they are not uniquely sensitive to any particular non-self protein type. Rathe, they phagocytose foreign matter as well as cellular debris. Plasma cells, memory cells, and CD8 T cells are all lymphocytes, and as such they are all part of the adaptive or "specific" immune system, meaning that they are uniquely sensitive to particular pathogenic proteins.

Example Question #10 : Other Immune Physiology

Which of the following antibacterial enzymes is present saliva?

Possible Answers:

Lysozyme

Kallikrein

Lingual lipase

Amylase

Correct answer:

Lysozyme

Explanation:

While all of the enzymes listed are present in saliva, lysozyme is the only enzyme listed that has antibacterial properties. This enzyme, present not only in saliva but also in tears, sweat, and breast milk, damages bacterial cell walls, making it an important part of the innate immune system. Amylase breaks down carbohydrates, lipase breaks down lipids, and kallikrein breaks down proteins.

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