NCLEX : Other Biology Concepts

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Other Biology Concepts

What three parts does the brain stem consist of?

Possible Answers:

Midbrain, cerebellum, pons

Corpus callosum, medulla, and cerebellum

Pons, cerebellum, medulla

Medulla, pons, and midbrain

Correct answer:

Medulla, pons, and midbrain

Explanation:

The brain stem consists of the medulla, the pons, and the midbrain. The cerebellum is an outgrowth posterior to the pons. The corpus callosum is the broad bundle of neural fibers that attaches the left hemisphere of the brain to the right hemisphere.

Example Question #1 : Other Biology Concepts

Olfaction is what form of sensory reception?

Possible Answers:

Chemoreception

Mechanoreception

Thermoreception

Baroreception

Correct answer:

Chemoreception

Explanation:

Olfaction is form of chemoreception, or a translation of a chemical signal into an action potential. Smells are triggered by molecules of volatile chemicals that trigger chemoreceptors in the epithelium of the olfactory cleft. 

Example Question #2 : Other Biology Concepts

Olfactory nerves travel through what structure in order to enter the skull?

Possible Answers:

The cribiform plate

The ethmoidal labyrinth

The perpendicular plate of the ethmoid

The crista galli

Correct answer:

The cribiform plate

Explanation:

The olfactory nerves travel through the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone. The grooves of the cribiform plate support the olfactory bulb, and the bone is perforated by many tiny foramen for transmission of the olfactory nerves from the epithelium of the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulb.

The other structures listed are all bony features of the ethmoid bone, but they do not allow the passage of olfactory nerves.

Example Question #3 : Other Biology Concepts

Approximately how many action potentials must be triggered in an olfactory receptor neuron in order for a smell to be detected?

Possible Answers:

80-100

1

200-250

2-5

40-50

Correct answer:

40-50

Explanation:

Olfactory receptor neurons require 7-8 molecules of a volatile odorant to trigger an action potential, and approximately 40 action potentials must be triggered in an olfactory receptor neuron in order for a smell to be detected. 

Example Question #5 : Other Biology Concepts

What type of cell is embedded in the olfactory epithelium?

Possible Answers:

Supporting cells

All of these

Olfactory sensory neurons

Basal cells

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

There are three types of cells embedded in the olfactory epithelium: basal cells, supporting cells, and olfactory sensory neurons. All three of these cells play a significant role in the sense of smell, though the olfactory sensory neurons are the only cell type that actually respond to chemical stimuli. 

Example Question #6 : Other Biology Concepts

All of the following parts of the brain are involved in olfactory sense and recognition except which of the following?

Possible Answers:

The orbitofrontal cortex

The insula

The piriform complex

The arcuate nucleus

Correct answer:

The arcuate nucleus

Explanation:

The olfactory perception is managed by several parts of the brain, the primary areas being the piriform cortex, the insula, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Other lesser involved areas of the brain include the anterior olfactory nucleus, the amygdala, the entorhinal cortex, and the olfactory tubercle.

The arcuate nucleus is an area of the hypothalamus that is involved in regulation of hunger and satiety. 

Example Question #6 : Other Biology Concepts

Where is the olfactory epithelium is located?

Possible Answers:

The sphenoid sinus

The eustachian tube

The roof of the nasal cavity

The inferior turbinate

Correct answer:

The roof of the nasal cavity

Explanation:

The olfactory epithelium is located at the roof of the nasal cavity in a relatively large area that includes the superior turbinate and the superior portion of the nasal septum. There are no specialized olfactory cells on the inferior turbinates, and no olfactory receptors in either the sphenoid sinus of the eustachian tube. 

Example Question #7 : Other Biology Concepts

Which of the following tastes has the lowest detection threshold?

Possible Answers:

Salty

Bitter

Sour

Sweet

Correct answer:

Bitter

Explanation:

The human tongue can detect bitter flavors at concentrations as low as 8 micromolars per liter. In comparison, in the average person the detection threshold for sucrose is 10 millimoles per liter. The reason for the extreme sensitivity of the human tongue to bitter flavors may be protective, as many poisonous or toxic substances have a bitter taste.

Example Question #8 : Other Biology Concepts

All taste buds of the tongue are located in what structure(s)?

Possible Answers:

In the papillae

In the apex

In the palatoglossal arch

In the terminal sulcus

Correct answer:

In the papillae

Explanation:

Taste buds are located in the papillae of the tongue, a group of structures lining the surface of the tongue from the apex to the base. These papillae are also present in the cheek, the soft palate, the epiglottis, and the upper esophagus. They are not present in the palatoglossal arch.

Example Question #4 : Other Biology Concepts

Of the four types of lingual papillae, which is the only type that does not contain taste buds?

Possible Answers:

Circumvallate papillae

Foliate papillae

Filiform papillae

Fungiform papillae

Correct answer:

Filiform papillae

Explanation:

Filiform papillae, the most numerous of the lingual papillae, is the only type that does not contain taste buds. Rather, they serve to move food toward the esophagus, cleanse the interior of the mouth, and spread saliva onto food and mucus membranes.

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