NCLEX : Nutrition

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

← Previous 1 3 4

Example Question #1 : Nutrition

Which vitamins are necessary to convert glutamic acid into glutamine?

Possible Answers:

Vitamin B3 and vitamin B6

Vitamin E and vitamin D

Vitamin C and vitamin B12

Biotin and folate

Correct answer:

Vitamin B3 and vitamin B6

Explanation:

Vitamin B3 and vitamin B6 are required to convert glutamic acid into glutamine. Biotin (vitamin B7) plays roles in fat and amino acid metabolism, and though there has been no conclusive evidence of its effect on the growth of hair and nails, it is commonly taken as a supplement for these purposes. Folate (vitamin B9) is required during synthesis of red blood cells, and during DNA replication. Folate cannot be synthesized de novo, and thus must be ingested from the diet. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant, and is a cofactor to many biological processes. Cobalmin (vitamin B12) is involved in cell metabolism, particularly in that of fatty acids and amino acids. The source of B12 is from the natural flora of the gut. Vitamin D enhances the absorption of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and zinc from the gastrointestinal tract. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant.

Example Question #2 : Nutrition

What B vitamin deficiency is common in alcoholism?

Possible Answers:

Riboflavin (B2)

Thiamine (B1)

Folate

Biotin

Correct answer:

Thiamine (B1)

Explanation:

Alcoholism is associated with thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. This is due to multiple factors: poor nutrition, ethanol's inhibition of thiamin transport in the intestine, and reduced storage of thiamine in the liver due to fatty changes.

Example Question #3 : Nutrition

What essential amino acid is a precursor to nitric oxide?

Possible Answers:

L-arginine

Methionine

Leucine

Histidine

Correct answer:

L-arginine

Explanation:

L-arginine is a precursor for the production of nitric oxide, essential to vasodilation. Other precursors to nitric oxide include NADPH, oxygen, and nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) enzymes. These other amino acids do not have essential roles in the nitric oxide synthesis pathway.

Example Question #4 : Nutrition

A physician might recommend decreased fluid intake for which of the following conditions?

Possible Answers:

Nasogastric tube

Renal disease

Vomiting

Pressure ulcer

Correct answer:

Renal disease

Explanation:

A physician is most likely to recommend decreased fluid intake in a patient that has renal disease, particularly if they are in any stage of renal failure. This is because a high fluid intake may put undue strain on the already impaired function of the kidney. Increased fluid intake is generally recommended for all of the other conditions listed.

Example Question #5 : Nutrition

What is the most common cause of copper deficiency in the US?

Possible Answers:

Wilson's disease

Soil mineral depletion

Inadequate dietary intake

Gastric bypass

Correct answer:

Gastric bypass

Explanation:

The most common cause of copper deficiency in the United States is gastric bypass. This is due to malabsorption from food. Copper is fairly ubiquitous in soil and in the average American diet. Wilson's disease is a disorder of excess copper, rather than copper deficiency, resulting in a variety of neurological symptoms.   

Example Question #6 : Nutrition

Which of the following is a symptom of vitamin K deficiency?

Possible Answers:

Cartilage calcification

All of these

Bone malformation

Petechiae

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Vitamin K deficiency can cause a variety of issues related to inability to form blood clots such as petechiae, excessive bleeding, bruising, heavy menses. This vitamin is also an important part of bone and cartilage formation, with deficiency resulting in malformation of developing bones and cartilage, or deposition of calcium into cartilage or arterial walls.

Example Question #7 : Nutrition

Which of the following spices was shown in several studies to lower blood sugar in type 2 diabetics by decreasing insulin resistance?

Possible Answers:

Cinnamon

Oregano

Turmeric

Cumin

Correct answer:

Cinnamon

Explanation:

An intake of 1-6 grams of cinnamon has been shown in studies to lower blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes by as much as 25%, possibly due to its ability to improve insulin sensitivity.

Example Question #8 : Nutrition

Which of the following is the most common cause of osteomalacia?

Possible Answers:

Vitamin K deficiency

Biotin deficiency

Vitamin E deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency

Correct answer:

Vitamin D deficiency

Explanation:

The mot common cause of osteomalacia (known as rickets in children) in the United States is vitamin D deficiency. This is due to vitamin D's vital role in calcium absorption, homeostasis, and metabolism. Osteomalacia is categorized by the softening of the bones.

Example Question #1 : Nutrition

Which of the following nutrients, when consumed at the same time as a meal that contains non-heme iron (iron from plant sources such as spinach), can significantly improve iron absorption?

Possible Answers:

Calcium

Magnesium

Vitamin C

Vitamin D

Correct answer:

Vitamin C

Explanation:

Vitamin C chelates non-heme iron in food while exposed to the acidic pH of the stomach. This chelated iron then becomes more soluble in the alkaline pH of the duodenum, resulting in increased intestinal absorption of iron.

Example Question #10 : Nutrition

Serotonin, melatonin, and niacin are synthesized from what precursor?

Possible Answers:

Taurine

N-acetylcholine

L-tryptophan

L-tyrosine

Correct answer:

L-tryptophan

Explanation:

Serotonin, melatonin, and niacin are all synthesized from L-tryptophan, an amino acid prevalent in many foods including chocolate, oats, dates, milk, sesame seeds, eggs, meat, and cheese. L-tyrosine is involved in the synthesis of dopamine. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction, which stimulates contraction of skeletal muscle. Taurine has many biological functions in the cardiovascular, muscular, and nervous systems, as well as others.

← Previous 1 3 4
Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors

Incompatible Browser

Please upgrade or download one of the following browsers to use Instant Tutoring: