All NCLEX Resources
Example Question #1 : Identifying Viruses
What is an infectious cause of orchitis?
Orchitis due to mumps has decreased significantly due to vaccination, but it is still a significant risk in unvaccinated individuals. Mumps-related orchitis can result in testicular failure later in life. None of the other microbial infections listed have an association with orchitis.
Example Question #2 : Identifying Viruses
Hepatitis C is associated with higher levels of what metabolic disorder?
Type II diabetes
Type II diabetes
Individuals with hepatitis C have a much higher incidence of development of type II diabetes. This is thought to be due to increased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, which leads to insulin resistance. Gaucher's disease is a hereditary disorder of glucosylceramide accumulation that can affect the liver but is not caused by hepatitis C virus. Wasting syndrome is a general term for individuals who experience unintentional weight loss due to a disease such as cancer. Fabry disease is a rare liposomal storage disorder unrelated to any viral infection.
Example Question #3 : Identifying Viruses
A child appears with a flat pink rash that first appeared on the trunk. Subsequently, the rash migrated to the rest of the body. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
This question requires the student to distinguish between the rashes that are common in children; specifically those that may be present due to fear of immunizations. Measles begins with Koplik's spot in the mouth. Then the rash first appears on the forehead. Rubella first appears on the trunk, then spreads throughout the body. Chicken pox manifests as fluid-filled vesicles. Smallpox appears as blister-like lesions and this disease has been eradicated for a few decades.
Example Question #4 : Identifying Viruses
Which strain of human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the most forms of cancer?
While HPV 18 is associated with a large percentage of cervical dysplasia alongside HPV 16, HPV 16 is the strain associated with the majority of HPV-related anal cancer, cancer of the throat, tongue cancer, vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, and penile cancer.
Example Question #5 : Identifying Viruses
Which of the following viruses is responsible for infectious mononucleosus?
Epstein Barr virus
Epstein Barr virus
Infectious mononucleosis is associated with infection by Epstein Barr virus, a form of human herpes virus. Cytomegalovirus is associated primarily with congenital defects, parvovirus B19 is the cause of fifth's disease, also known as "slapped cheek syndrome." Herpes zoster is the virus responsible for both chicken pox and shingles.
Example Question #6 : Identifying Viruses
Zika virus is primarily transmitted via what route?
Zika virus is primarily transmitted via mosquito bite. However, it can also be transmitted by sexual contact and it can cross the placenta, allowing an infected mother to pass the virus to an unborn child.
Example Question #7 : Identifying Viruses
High fever, cough, runny nose, maculopapular rash, and Koplik's spots are seen in which of the following viral infections?
Koplik's spots are oral lesions seen early-on in infection with the measles virus. These spots are only present in a minority of cases, though. Other common symptoms of measles include high fever (often over 104 degrees fahrenheit), cough, runny nose, and a maculopapular rash which begins at the hair line and spreads down to the trunk and extremities.
The most noticeable symptom in mumps infection is enlargement of the parotid glands, while Epstein Barr infection can result in fatigue, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. Scarlet fever is not a viral infection, but rather is caused by the bacteria streptococcus pyogenes.
Example Question #8 : Identifying Viruses
How is the measles virus primarily spread?
The measles virus is one of the most highly contagious of all childhood exanthems. It is spread primarily by respiratory droplets, or by touching a surface that has been in contact with an infected individual's saliva or mucus. It is not spread in feces, nor is it blood or vector borne.
Example Question #9 : Identifying Viruses
Which of the following is an infection of the finger, toe, or nail cuticle with the herpes simplex virus?
An infection of the finger, toe, or cuticle with the herpes simplex virus is known as a herpetic whitlow. This infection causes painful swelling and erythema at the site of contact and is often caused by the finger coming into contact with a cold sore (oral herpes simplex lesion). It is more common in individuals who are frequently in contact with oral mucosa, such as dentists and dental hygienist, nurses, and in individuals who bite their nails or suck their fingers or thumb.
Example Question #10 : Identifying Viruses
Which of the following is the most common cause of infectious neonatal hearing loss?
Epstein Barr virus
The most common cause of infectious hearing loss in neonates is cytomegalovirus (CMV), also known as human herpes virus 5. While this disease rarely causes symptoms in adults, it can cause significant harm to a fetus. One of the primary fetal consequences of CMV infection in pregnancy is hearing loss. Other issues can include vision loss, developmental delays, and seizures.
All of the other infections listed can have significant impacts on the health of a fetus or neonate, including pre-term birth, spontaneous abortion, and vision loss, though none are currently associated with risk of hearing loss.