NCLEX : Identifying OB/GYN Conditions

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #162 : Conditions And Treatments

Which of the following is a possible complication of amniocentesis?

Possible Answers:

All of these

Needle injury

RH sensitization

Miscarriage

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

There are several risks to amniocentesis, including (but not limited to) miscarriage, infection, needle injury, and RH sensitization. The rate of miscarriage due to amniocentesis is between 1 in 300 and 1 in 500. The other complications listed are relatively rare.

Example Question #1 : Identifying Ob/Gyn Conditions

Fundal height of a pregnant woman is measured from __________.

Possible Answers:

the top of the pubic bone to the top of the uterus

the bottom of the pubic bone to the top of the uterus

the middle of the pubic bone to the top of the uterus

the middle of the pubic bone to the bottom of the uterus

the top of the pubic bone to the middle of the uterus

Correct answer:

the top of the pubic bone to the top of the uterus

Explanation:

Fundal height (sometimes referred to as McDonald's rule) is measured in centimeters from the top of the pubic bone to the top of the uterus. The top of the uterus may also be called the fundus of the uterus. It is used to assess the growth and development of the fetus inside the womb. 

Example Question #3 : Identifying Ob/Gyn Conditions

Alex is 17 weeks pregnant. She comes into the clinic to get a alpha-fetoprotein test. A low result could indicate all of the following except __________.

Possible Answers:

hydatidiform mole

preeclampsia

fetal trisomy 21

the gestational age of the baby is incorrect

fetal trisomy 18

Correct answer:

preeclampsia

Explanation:

Alpha-fetoprotein is made by the fetus. Congenital abnormalities (fetal trisomy 18, fetal trisomy 21) are associated with low levels of this protein. Additionally, so is hydatidiform mole. Hydatidiform mole is the presence of an abnormal mass or growth inside the uterus. Based on a low result, the physician may want to conduct further testing. Preeclampsia is a dangerous medical condition characterized by high blood pressure. It is not associated with alpha-fetoprotein.

Example Question #4 : Identifying Ob/Gyn Conditions

The nurse is assessing a woman in labor. He knows that fetal bradycardia occurs when the heart rate drops below __________.

Possible Answers:

100 beats per minute

130 beats per minute

120 beats per minute

90 beats per minute

110 beats per minute

Correct answer:

110 beats per minute

Explanation:

Fetal bradycardia is recognized when fetal heart rate drops below 110 beats per minute for 10 minutes or longer. The normal fetal heart rate is between 120 beats per minute and 160 beats per minute. Fetal tachycardia is a heart rate above 160 beats per minute. 

Example Question #2 : Identifying Ob/Gyn Conditions

Anne, a 32-year-old woman, presents for her first prenatal visit. The doctor orders a CBC (complete blood count). Which of the following is not included in a CBC?

Possible Answers:

White blood cells

Blood type

Platelets

Hemoglobin

Hematocrit

Correct answer:

Blood type

Explanation:

A separate test called a "type and screen" is needed to assess the blood type. Complete blood counts (CBC's) typically contain hemoglobin and hematocrit, platelet counts, white blood cell counts, and red blood cell counts among many other measures. They are among the most frequently ordered laboratory tests by providers. The physician will use this information to diagnose conditions such as anemia. 

Example Question #3 : Identifying Ob/Gyn Conditions

The nurse is assessing fetal heart rate in a pregnant patient. The nurse records a pulse of 82 beats per minute. The nurse should __________.

Possible Answers:

add lubricant to the doppler's surface

try another doppler device

ask the mother to lay on her right side

move the doppler device

call the physician immediately

Correct answer:

move the doppler device

Explanation:

An 82 beat per minute reading could be the mother's heart rate, indicating that the nurse does not have the doppler in the correct position. A normal fetal heart rate is between 120 and 160 beats per minute. The nurse must always remember to take the mother's pulse before assessing the fetal heart rate. Before calling the physician, it is important to determine that the data is accurate. To increase oxygen perfusion to the fetus, ask the mother to lay on her left side.

Example Question #4 : Identifying Ob/Gyn Conditions

Brittany is 40 weeks pregnant and calls because she is seeing pink-tinged discharge for the first time. The nurse should tell Brittany to __________.

Possible Answers:

continue to monitor

lie on her back and place her feet in the air until help arrives

call an ambulance

eat a bland diet and continue regular exercise

drive to the hospital immediately

Correct answer:

continue to monitor

Explanation:

This is most likely the normal "bloody show" at the beginning of labor. There is no need to immediately arrive at the hospital, change position, or eat a bland diet. The patient should continue to monitor and call back or seek care when she experiences regular contractions that are becoming more intense and frequent.

Example Question #5 : Identifying Ob/Gyn Conditions

Sarah is a seventeen-year-old female who has not gotten her first period and is visiting her doctor for an exam. She has displayed the normal growth and development of several secondary sex characteristics. The nurse would describe to the doctor that Sarah is showing signs of __________.

Possible Answers:

secondary dysmenorrhea

secondary amenorrhea

oligomenorrhea 

primary amenorrhea

primary dysmenorrhea

Correct answer:

primary amenorrhea

Explanation:

Primary amenorrhea occurs when a female is fourteen years old and has not gotten her first period and has not developed secondary sex characteristics. Primary amenorrhea also occurs when a female sixteen or older has not gotten her first period but has developed secondary sex characteristics. Primary dysmenorrhea refers to painful menstruation not linked to a physiological disorder. Secondary dysmenorrhea refers to painful menstruation due to an underlying cause such as endometriosis. Oligomenorrhea refers to the absence of a period, typically for at least 35 days. 

Example Question #6 : Identifying Ob/Gyn Conditions

Amber is a 39-year-old woman who is experiencing secondary dysmenorrhea. The nurse knows that Amber could be suffering from which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Turner syndrome

High levels of prostaglandin

Amenorrhea

Low levels of aldosterone

Endometriosis

Correct answer:

Endometriosis

Explanation:

Secondary dysmenorrhea refers to painful menstruation due to an underlying condition. Endometriosis, an example of a condition that frequently causes secondary dysmenorrhea, refers to the growth of uterine tissue in inappropriate places such as the ovary or rectum. High levels of prostaglandin are frequently found in women with primary dysmenorrhea which is painful menstruation without an underlying condition. Low levels of aldosterone would not likely cause painful menstruation. Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that can frequently cause amenorrhea, or absence of a period.

Example Question #7 : Identifying Ob/Gyn Conditions

A nurse is assessing an 18-year-old woman who has come into the emergency department for bilateral abdominal pain. Which of the following should the nurse not consider a risk factor for ectopic pregnancy?

Possible Answers:

Uterine fibroids

Yeast infection

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Endometriosis

Chlamydia trachomatis

Correct answer:

Yeast infection

Explanation:

Uterine conditions such as endometriosis and uterine fibroids increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Endometriosis is the inappropriate growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. Uterine fibroids are benign tumors within the uterus. Sexually transmitted infections can cause a condition called pelvic inflammatory disease which can result in scarring. Scarring of the reproductive system greatly increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Yeast infections are common after antibiotic therapy and are treated with an over-the-counter medication. They generally do not cause permanent damage to the body.

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