NCLEX : Identifying Cardiovascular Conditions

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Identifying Cardiovascular Conditions

When checking on a patient receiving parenteral nutrition the nurse observes that the patient has gained excessive weight, has increased blood pressure, and has a bounding pulse. The nurse responds by:
Possible Answers:
Placing the client in a left-side lying position with the head lower than the feet
Restricting fluids and administering diuretics
Administering insulin
Administering dextrose intravenously
Correct answer: Restricting fluids and administering diuretics
Explanation: A client with excessive weight gain, headache, increased blood pressure, and bounding pulse is demonstrating symptoms of hypervolemia. The nurse should slow or stop the IV infusion, restrict fluids, an administer diuretics.

Example Question #2 : Cardiovascular Conditions

What is cardiac tamponade?

Possible Answers:

A loud, systolic mumur heard best over the 5th left intercostal space

Pain in the chest due to ischemia that is worse with exertion and better with rest

Accumulation of fluid in the pericardium that puts pressure on the heart

A potentially life-threatening arrhythmia arising from improper ventricular electrical activity

Correct answer:

Accumulation of fluid in the pericardium that puts pressure on the heart

Explanation:

Cardiac tamponade is a condition in which blood, air, pus, or some other type of fluid accumulates in the pericardium, putting pressure on the heart and reducing it's ability to fill during diastole. Cardiac tamponade is not an arrhythmia, a murmur, or any type of ischemia. Signs include pulsus paradoxus (a greater than 10mmHg drop of systolic blood pressure on inspiration) and changes on ECG.

Example Question #2 : Identifying Cardiovascular Conditions

A 60-year-old male enters the emergency room complaining of burning pain under his sternum that radiates to his jaw. He has been experiencing this pain for three weeks, periodically, with episodes that occur as often as three times a week. The nurse proceeds in which of the following ways?

Possible Answers:

Asks the patient if he has tried antacids

Administers a dose of ibuprofen

Administers 25 grams of 50% dextrose solution

Immediately calls the physician

Prepares the patient for immediate transfer to the cardiac laboratory

Correct answer:

Asks the patient if he has tried antacids

Explanation:

The patient is describing symptoms of heartburn. While it is important to rule out a cardiac-related cause, the nurse must do more assessment before reaching a conclusion.

Example Question #4 : Cardiovascular Conditions

What EKG rhythm is considered "irregularly irregular?"

Possible Answers:

Atrial fibrillation

Atrial flutter

All of these

Sinus bradycardia

Sinus tachycardia

Correct answer:

Sinus tachycardia

Explanation:

Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is considered an "irregularly irregular" rhythm. There are no discernible p waves because the atria are not contracting properly. The rate is irregular. This means that the rate varies from beat to beat. 

Example Question #3 : Identifying Cardiovascular Conditions

Which of the following is not a risk factor for hypertension?

Possible Answers:

All the choices are risk factors

Gender

Family history

Race

Correct answer:

All the choices are risk factors

Explanation:

All of the answer choices listed are risk factors for hypertension:

Gender - more common in men

Race - more common in people of African American descent

Family history - more common in patients who have family members with a history of hypertension

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