NCLEX : Hormones

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Hormones

What nutrients are specifically needed for proper thyroid hormone production?

Possible Answers:

Tyrosine, iodine, and selenium

Iodine and manganese

Methionine and magnesium

Iron, manganese, and biotin

Correct answer:

Tyrosine, iodine, and selenium

Explanation:

The nutrients specifically required for thyroid hormone production are tyrosine, iodine, and selenium, in addition to zinc and several B vitamins. While magnesium, manganese, and methionine are all essential for metabolism and overall hormone production, they are not direct substrates or cofactors in the production of thyroid hormone.

Example Question #2 : Hormones

What is selenium’s role in thyroid hormone production?

Possible Answers:

Conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine

Synthesis of T4

Conversion of T4 to T3

Synthesis of T3

Correct answer:

Conversion of T4 to T3

Explanation:

Selenium is essential for conversion of T4 to T3. Deiodinase enzymes, which remove iodine from T4 during conversion into T3, are selenium dependent. Tyrosine and iodine are both required for synthesis of T4, and iron is the cofactor for conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine.

Example Question #3 : Hormones

What role do tyrosine and iodine play in thyroid hormone (thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3)) production?

Possible Answers:

Synthesis of T4

Conversion of T4 to T3

Conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine

None of these

Correct answer:

Synthesis of T4

Explanation:

Tyrosine and iodine are both precursors for synthesis of T4. Selenium is essential for conversion of T4 to T3, and iron is the cofactor for conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine.

Example Question #4 : Hormones

What hormone is produced as a response to rising plasma calcium levels?

Possible Answers:

Thyroid hormone

Calcitonin

Parathyroid hormone

Cortisol

Correct answer:

Calcitonin

Explanation:

Calcitonin is produced by the parafollicular (c cells) of the thyroid as a response to elevated blood calcium levels. Calcitonin reduces plasma calcium by inhibiting osteoclast activity and stimulating osteoblasts to deposit more bone. Parathyroid hormone has the opposite effect - it acts to increase calcium levels when serum calcium decreases. While they may ultimately affect serum calcium levels, thyroid hormone and cortisol are not directly involved in calcium homeostasis.

Example Question #5 : Hormones

Which of the following hormones is produced in the anterior pituitary?

Possible Answers:

Dopamine

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

Somatostatin

Correct answer:

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

Explanation:

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced in the anterior pituitary. Somatostatin, dopamine, and gonadotropin releasing hormone are all hypothalamic hormones. Somatostatin is also secreted by the pancreas, and slows down digestive processes. To remember the hormones of the anterior pituitary, use the following mnemonic: FLAT PEG, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Endorphins, Growth hormone.

Example Question #6 : Hormones

Which of the following hormones is produced by the adrenal medulla? 

Possible Answers:

Antidiuretic hormone

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Calcitonin

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Epinephrine

Correct answer:

Epinephrine

Explanation:

Epinephrine is the only hormone of those listed that is produced by the adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla is the center of the adrenal gland. Antidiuretic hormone is produced by the posterior pituitary. Calcitonin is produced by the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is secreted from the anterior pituitary, as is follicle-stimulating hormone. 

Example Question #7 : Hormones

Which of the following hormones promotes uterine contractility during and after childbirth?

Possible Answers:

Amylin

Progesterone

Prolactin

Oxytocin

Estrogen

Correct answer:

Oxytocin

Explanation:

Oxytocin is produced by the hypothalamus, and is released by the posterior pituitary. Women experience an increased level of oxytocin during labor, after birth, and while breastfeeding. It helps to increase uterine contractility, aiding in the delivery process and preventing hemorrhage after birth. Progesterone and estrogen are hormones released from the ovary. Estrogen is has many effects on the body, one of which is the development of sex characteristics in females. Progesterone is important in regulation of the uterine lining. Prolactin is made by the anterior pituitary gland and functions in the production on breast milk. 

Example Question #8 : Hormones

When blood calcium is low, the parathyroid glands release parathyroid hormone. In response __________.

Possible Answers:

the kidneys absorb additional calcium that is filtered from the blood

All of these

the intestines absorb more calcium from food

calcium is released from the bone

the kidneys excrete less calcium into the urine

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

All of these are correct effects of parathyroid hormone. The kidneys resorb calcium and as a result, less is released into the urine. The intestines absorb additional calcium from food and calcium is released from the bone through the work of osteoclasts. 

Example Question #9 : Hormones

The thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is produced by which of the following?

Possible Answers:

The anterior pituitary

The adrenal cortex

The adrenal medulla

The hypothalamus

The posterior pituitary

Correct answer:

The anterior pituitary

Explanation:

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced by the anterior pituitary. TSH causes the thyroid to release thyroid hormones (T3 and T4). A TSH blood test is often ordered to diagnose hypoactive thyroid. 

Example Question #10 : Hormones

The nurse is counseling a patient who will return to the office to for a serum aldosterone blood test. The nurse tells the patient that aldosterone levels are highest at what time?

Possible Answers:

2 PM

11 PM

11 AM

5 PM

7 AM

Correct answer:

7 AM

Explanation:

Aldosterone is a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands. Serum aldosterone levels vary throughout the day. Aldosterone presence is highest in the morning. Of the answer choices, 7 AM is the best choice. A physician may have the patient come to the office at a specific time of day for this reason.

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