NCLEX : Causes and Treatments of Respiratory Conditions

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #60 : Conditions And Treatments

What is the "hygiene hypothesis" in asthma? 

Possible Answers:

Exposing children to pathogens at a young age will decrease their risk for asthma

Keeping children's hands clean will reduce asthma rates

Dirty water is responsible for many cases of asthma in the developing world

Frequent bathing can reduce the severity of asthma attacks

Correct answer:

Exposing children to pathogens at a young age will decrease their risk for asthma

Explanation:

Incidence of asthma is lower in populations exposed to an abundance of microbes from a young age. The "hygiene hypothesis" suggests that early immune stimulation by multiple forms of infectious agents may push a Th1 phenotype, reducing the Th2 (allergic) response. 

Example Question #1 : Causes And Treatments Of Respiratory Conditions

All of the following are common triggers for asthma except __________.

Possible Answers:

emotional stress or excitement

exercise

cold air

squatting

Correct answer:

squatting

Explanation:

The most commonly reported triggers for asthma attacks are cold air, emotional stress or excitement, infection, irritants such as pollen or dust mites, and exercise. Other triggers may include lying down, exposure to cigarette smoke, or acid reflux. 

Example Question #2 : Causes And Treatments Of Respiratory Conditions

A patient has been administered isoniazid for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Which statement made by the nurse would be the most appropriate when teaching the client about this medication?

Possible Answers:

"This medication must be taken twice daily for 9–12 months."

"This medication must be given by DOT – directly observed therapy."

"This medication is expensive and may only be taken subcutaneously."

"This medication is associated with color blindness." 

"This medication is known to cause peripheral neuropathy and therefore it is necessary to give pyridoxine prophylactically."

Correct answer:

"This medication is known to cause peripheral neuropathy and therefore it is necessary to give pyridoxine prophylactically."

Explanation:

Isoniazid is a bactericidal drug that is given for tuberculosis that has several adverse effects including peripheral neuropathy. This drug is usually administered in conjunction to other antitubercular drugs. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is recommended to be taken in conjunction with isoniazid to prevent neurotoxicity.

Isoniazid is relatively inexpensive and may be taken orally or intravenously. It is not necessary to be taken under direct observation, and is usually dosed according to type of disease (active versus latent). The typical duration of administration is roughly 26 weeks. Color blindness is not associated with isoniazid treatment.

Example Question #62 : Conditions And Treatments

All of the following changes may be seen in chronic asthma except __________.

Possible Answers:
epithelial desquamation

destruction of alveolar septa and pulmonary capillaries

hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mucus glands

deposition of subepithelial collagen

Correct answer:

destruction of alveolar septa and pulmonary capillaries

Explanation:

Chronic asthma can result in a situation referred to as "airway remodeling," typified by the following changes: increased airway vascularity, epithelial desquamation, deposition of subepithelial collagen, and hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mucus glands and of the underlying muscle layer.

Destruction of alveolar septa and pulmonary capillaries is a common finding in emphysema and does not present in asthma.

Example Question #3 : Causes And Treatments Of Respiratory Conditions

At what stage are antibiotics effective in treatment of pertussis?

Possible Answers:

Up to 8 weeks

Up to 2 weeks

Up to 4 weeks

Up to 6 weeks

Correct answer:

Up to 4 weeks

Explanation:

Antibiotics have been shown to have very little effectiveness in treating a pertussis infection older than four weeks. Because of this, treatment with antibiotics to individuals that have been symptomatic for longer than four weeks is not generally recommended.

Example Question #4 : Causes And Treatments Of Respiratory Conditions

A client is admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The client has a recent history of bacterial pneumonia that has worsened and is at risk for hypoxemia. 

All of the following interventions apply to treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) except __________.

Possible Answers:

an arterial catheter may be inserted to allow for blood pressure monitoring and ABG (arterial blood gas) blood sampling

daily weight should be taken to monitor fluid status

parenteral or enteral feeding will be necessary to meet high energy demands

client may be placed in the prone position to increase the PaO2

the client should be given the highest concentration of oxygen that will yield a PaO2 of 60 mmHg or greater

Correct answer:

the client should be given the highest concentration of oxygen that will yield a PaO2 of 60 mmHg or greater

Explanation:

The oxygen concentration should be the lowest possible, due to the risk of oxygen toxicity seen in clients with FIO(fraction of inspired oxygen) levels exceeding 60% for more than 48 hours. 

Example Question #5 : Causes And Treatments Of Respiratory Conditions

A young male presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident. Upon examination it is found that the client will require a chest tube to re-inflate his collapsed lung. 

All of the following correctly describe how a chest tube is placed except which of these?

Possible Answers:

If air is to be removed the chest tube is placed inferiorly and posteriorly.  

If performed at bedside sterile technique must be utilized.

After placement, the tube is sutured to the chest wall and a dressing applied. 

During insertion the tubes are to be clamped, once in the plural space they are connected and unclamped at that time. 

A common location utilized for insertion is the fifth intercostal - midaxillary line.

Correct answer:

If air is to be removed the chest tube is placed inferiorly and posteriorly.  

Explanation:

The correct placement of tubing includes directing a tube apically to remove air from the pleural space, and to direct the tube that will drain fluids in an inferior and posterior orientation. 

Example Question #6 : Causes And Treatments Of Respiratory Conditions

A 45 year old male with COPD presents to the hospital with an exacerbation of his lung condition. He is in respiratory distress and the physician recommends he sit leaning forward. What is the purpose of sitting like this?

Possible Answers:

To help exhale air

To easily cough out secretions

To help inhale air

To prevent loss of consciousness

To prevent falling

Correct answer:

To help exhale air

Explanation:

COPD is a chronic lung condition marked by air trapping. Patients with COPD are instructed to sit in the "tripod" position to help them exhale air. Patients sit and lean forward to help maximize air exiting from the lungs.

Example Question #7 : Causes And Treatments Of Respiratory Conditions

Which of the following best describes the mechanism of albuterol inhalers during an asthma exacerbation?

Possible Answers:

Alpha adrenergic antagonist

None of these

Beta adrenergic agonist

Alpha adrenergic agonist

Beta adrenergic antagonist

Correct answer:

Beta adrenergic agonist

Explanation:

Albuterol is a beta adrenergic agonist. It helps to open up the airways during an asthma exacerbation by activating the beta adrenergic receptors, part of the sympathetic nervous system. Side effects include increased heart rate.

Example Question #68 : Conditions And Treatments

What is the inspiratory reserve volume?

Possible Answers:

The total amount of air the lung can contain

The amount of air that can be inhaled after normal inhalation

The amount of air that can be exhaled after normal inhalation

The normal amount of air that is inhaled with each breath

The amount of air available in the lungs after exhalation

Correct answer:

The amount of air that can be inhaled after normal inhalation

Explanation:

The inspiratory reserve volume for the average adult is roughly 3100mL. It is tested using pulmonary function tests. The inspiratory reserve volume is the amount of air able to be inhaled after a regular inhalation. This is in contrast to the expiratory reserve volume, which is the amount of air that can be exhaled after a regular exhalation.

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