NCLEX : Causes and Treatments of Pediatric Conditions

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Causes And Treatments Of Pediatric Conditions

What specific enzyme deficiency accounts for 95% of all cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia?

Possible Answers:

21-hydroxylase deficiency

Estrogen synthetase deficiency

Beta-glucuronidase deficiency

7-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency

Correct answer:

21-hydroxylase deficiency

Explanation:

In 21-hydroxylase deficiency, cortisol production is reduced, which in turn causes adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) to increase. The precursors for the cortisol are then shunted into androgen production since these are steroids, and are thus derived from cholesterol.

Example Question #2 : Causes And Treatments Of Pediatric Conditions

The community health nurse knows that teaching has been effective when the father of a newborn states __________.

Possible Answers:

"My child will sleep in the bed with me until the first month of life."

"I will place my child on his/her back and in a crib with stuffed animals to create familiarity."

"I will place bumper pads in the crib to prevent injury."

"I will place my child on his/her side to sleep, supported by pillows."

"I will place my child on his/her back to sleep."

Correct answer:

"I will place my child on his/her back to sleep."

Explanation:

Newborns should be placed on their back, in their crib, with nothing else when put to sleep. The crib may contain a fitted sheet or a light blanket. Crib pads, pillows, and stuffed animals are not advised because they may interfere with the child's ability to breathe.

Example Question #3 : Causes And Treatments Of Pediatric Conditions

The postpartum nurse is caring for a family and their new baby, a two day old infant. The baby is "spitting up" following every formula feeding. The nurse may suggest __________.

Possible Answers:

increasing the frequency of feedings

giving only 15-30 milliliters per feeding

switching brands of formula

using a "soft" instead of a "standard" bottle nipple

laying the baby on it's back after feedings

Correct answer:

giving only 15-30 milliliters per feeding

Explanation:

Typically, the digestive system of a 2-day-old infant can only accommodate 15-30 milliliters of formula comfortably. The infant's stomach will grow considerably over the coming weeks. Frequent spitting up could be due to overfeeding. Before switching formula brands, try decreasing the amount fed at each feeding. Increasing the frequency of feedings may add to this problem. Another possibility, that the infant is feeding too fast, may be corrected by using a "slow-flow" instead of a "soft" or "standard" nipple. "Soft" nipples may be helpful in infants with poor suck or latch. While feeding and directly afterwards, it is advised to keep the infant in a semi-upright position.

Example Question #4 : Causes And Treatments Of Pediatric Conditions

Hippotherapy has the ability to positively impact children who are cognitively, socially, emotionally, or physically challenged. Which of the following therapies is most closely related to hippotherapy? 

Possible Answers:

Pet therapy

Massage therapy

Art therapy

Herbal therapy

Music therapy

Correct answer:

Pet therapy

Explanation:

Hippotherapy is therapeutic horseback riding for the handicapped. The motion of the horse can help the child develop flexibility and balance. Working with others and animals can help the child cross social and emotional boundaries. A therapy involving animals (pet therapy) is most similar to hippotherapy.

Example Question #5 : Causes And Treatments Of Pediatric Conditions

Jennifer is a 14-year-old patient who has been diagnosed with diphtheria and subsequently, myocarditis. The nurse implements all of the following except __________.

Possible Answers:

administering antibiotics

enforcing bed rest

practicing standard precautions

administering antitoxin

practicing airborne precautions

Correct answer:

practicing airborne precautions

Explanation:

Diphtheria is an illness caused by bacteria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae). It is spread through droplets, requiring droplet precautions. Standard precautions should also be used, as with any patient. Delivery of antitoxin and antibiotics are important to a patient's recovery. Enforcing bedrest is important after a patient has developed myocarditis (inflammation of the heart).

Example Question #6 : Causes And Treatments Of Pediatric Conditions

A community health nurse is giving a presentation on pertussis (whooping cough). He tells his audience that which population is most at risk? 

Possible Answers:

Older adults from 65-75

Children under 4 years of age

Older adults from 75-85

Children from 4-12

Older adults above 85

Correct answer:

Children under 4 years of age

Explanation:

Children under 4 years of age hold the greatest risk of contracting Pertussis and developing serious complications, including death. Pertussis vaccines are recommended for all age groups. Children can start a vaccination series as early as 2 months of age. New parents are encouraged to become vaccinated before their baby arrives to prevent transmission before the infant is eligible for immunization.

Example Question #7 : Causes And Treatments Of Pediatric Conditions

A room designed to accommodate a child with the measles should include which of the following? 

Possible Answers:

Positive air pressure

No air pressure device is necessary

Low microscopy pressure device

High microscopy pressure device

Negative air pressure

Correct answer:

Negative air pressure

Explanation:

Measles is an airborne illness. For that reason, air pressure devices are necessary to prevent the spread of infection. Negative air pressure devices will adequately contain the measles virus because air will flow in to the room as opposed to out. Conversely, positive air pressure devices may be used to create an air flow out of a room in severely immunocompromised patients. 

Example Question #8 : Causes And Treatments Of Pediatric Conditions

The school nurse is approached by a 9-year-old boy who is complaining of severe scalp pruritus. Upon closer examination, the nurse concludes that he has a case of head lice (Pediculosis capitis). She knows all of the following to be true except __________.

Possible Answers:

his personal grooming items should be soaked in hot water or shampoo

treating the clothing of the child may be necessary

head lice may be a sign of poor hygiene

his 5-year-old sister should be examined

sealing his backpack in a plastic bag for 10 days should kill the lice

Correct answer:

head lice may be a sign of poor hygiene

Explanation:

Children and adults with exceptional personal hygiene are equally affected by head lice. The same applies to people of all socioeconomic groups, genders, and nationalities. All of the other options are true nursing interventions for head lice.

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