NCLEX : Causes and Treatments of OB/GYN Conditions

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Causes And Treatments Of Ob/Gyn Conditions

A woman is hospitalized for preeclampsia. Which medication may the nurse administer to prevent the occurrence of seizures?

Possible Answers:

Pitocin

Calcium gluconate

Magnesium sulfate

Zolpidem

Nubain

Correct answer:

Magnesium sulfate

Explanation:

Magnesium sulfate is used to prevent seizures in women with severe preeclampsia. Calcium gluconate is the antidote if magnesium toxicity is assessed. It should be readily available when a woman is receiving magnesium sulfate. Pitocin is used to stimulate the uterus, often to induce labor. Nubain is an opioid that can be given to women during labor to treat pain. Zolpidem (Ambien) is a sleep aid. 

Example Question #1 : Causes And Treatments Of Ob/Gyn Conditions

Jean is a 33-year-old woman who has previously had regular periods but has not gotten her period for six months. Which of the following would the nurse rule out as the cause? 

Possible Answers:

Yoga once per week

Kidney disease

Cross country running five times per week

Poor eating habits

Antidepressant use

Correct answer:

Yoga once per week

Explanation:

Yoga once per week (light exercise) is the least likely of the above to cause a change in regular menstruation. Cross country or long distance running (vigorous exercise) is more likely to cause changes to a woman's cycle. Poor lifestyle choices such as eating habits and health issues such as kidney disease can also cause irregular menstruation. Likewise, pharmaceuticals can have the same effect.

Example Question #3 : Causes And Treatments Of Ob/Gyn Conditions

Sandy is 29 years old and experiences bleeding between periods. The nurse marks which of the following on sandy's medical chart? 

Possible Answers:

Menometrorrhagia

Menorrhagia

Metrorrhagia

Oligomenorrhea

Polymenorrhea

Correct answer:

Metrorrhagia

Explanation:

Metrorrhagia is bleeding between periods. Menorrhagia refers to excessively heavy periods. Oligomenorrhea refers to light, scattered periods (typically spaced by greater than 35 days). Polymenorrhea is used to describe short cycles of equal to or less than 21 days. Menometrorrhagia is used to describe periods that are heavier, sporadic, and more frequent than normal periods. 

Example Question #4 : Causes And Treatments Of Ob/Gyn Conditions

A patient tells the nurse that she is practicing fertility awareness. The nurse tells the patient that the "unsafe period" can range from __________.

Possible Answers:

one day before and two days after ovulation

two days before and one day after ovulation

one day before and one day after ovulation

seven days before and seven days after ovulation

two days before and two days after ovulation

Correct answer:

seven days before and seven days after ovulation

Explanation:

According to the family planning method of contraception, the period in which conception can occur and one should refrain from intercourse is up to 7 days before and 7 days after ovulation. Some references show that sperm can live for up to five to seven days inside the female reproductive system. An unfertilized egg can live from between 12-24 hours. This greatly increases the window in which conception can occur. 

Example Question #2 : Causes And Treatments Of Ob/Gyn Conditions

Which of the following is false regarding oral contraceptives? 

Possible Answers:

They may increase the risk of developing a blood clot

They may heighten the risk of depression

They may decrease the risk of breast cancer

They may decrease the severity of menstrual cramps

They may reduce the risk of uterine cancer

Correct answer:

They may decrease the risk of breast cancer

Explanation:

Oral contraceptives may increase the risk of breast cancer, increase the risk of depression, and increase the risk of developing a blood clot (higher in women who smoke cigarettes). They can reduce the risk of uterine cancer and are frequently used in women with primary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea refers to painful menstrual cycles without an underlying cause. 

Example Question #6 : Causes And Treatments Of Ob/Gyn Conditions

A 51-year-old female arrives at her doctor's office because she has not had any periods for 12 months. The nurse should suspect __________.

Possible Answers:

endometriosis

polycystic ovarian syndrome

pregnancy

menopause

pelvic inflammatory disease

Correct answer:

menopause

Explanation:

Amenorrhea is the complete absence of a period. There are many different causes for amenorrhea. One of the most frequent causes of amenorrhea for women in the fifth decade of life, is menopause. Menopause is the most likely  cause of amenorrhea in this particular patient because she has not been experiencing periods for 12 months and is 51-years-old. While pregnancy is possible, the nurse would suspect menopause first. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a pelvic infection usually resulting in severe pain. Endometriosis is a condition in which uterine tissue inappropriately grows in areas such as the rectum or ovary, also typically causing severe pain. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a condition causing hormone imbalance. It can cause amenorrhea. This question requires the use of strategy to answer. There are several choices that could be responsible for amenorrhea, but which one is the most correct?  

Example Question #7 : Causes And Treatments Of Ob/Gyn Conditions

Jody is a 40-year-old woman seeking care for dysmenorrhea for the first time. Which would not be considered an appropriate treatment? 

Possible Answers:

Oxycodone/acetaminophen

Lifestyle modifications

Naproxen

Ibuprofen

Oral contraceptives

Correct answer:

Oxycodone/acetaminophen

Explanation:

There are many different ways to treat painful periods (dysmenorrhea). Ibuprofen and naproxen are anti-inflammatory agents that do not require a prescription and can be very effective. They have relatively few side effects. Lifestyle modification (such as exercise) is another good alternative. The use of oral contraceptives are also frequently used to give women lighter and milder periods. Percocet is not generally used because it is an opioid analgesic and not recommended for long term use because they carry potential for addiction.

Example Question #8 : Causes And Treatments Of Ob/Gyn Conditions

Which of the following is false regarding the respiratory system of pregnant women? 

Possible Answers:

The diaphragm elevates

The rib cage becomes slightly more compact

Total lung capacity decreases

There is increased metabolic demand for oxygen from the body

Oxygen consumption is increased

Correct answer:

The rib cage becomes slightly more compact

Explanation:

In pregnancy, the ribs start to flare (expand slightly) as the pressure from the growing fetus moves the diaphragm upwards. Many women experience this during the third trimester as the baby is at it's largest. The flaring of the ribs is assisted by maternal hormones that enable more flexibility throughout the body.

Example Question #9 : Causes And Treatments Of Ob/Gyn Conditions

Which of the following reasons does not indicate the need to induce labor?

Possible Answers:

Gestational hypertension

Diabetes

Postmaturity

Fetal macrosomia

Fetal jeopardy

Correct answer:

Fetal macrosomia

Explanation:

Induction of labor may occur for various indications: diabetes, postmaturity, hypertensive disorders or pregnancy, fetal jeopardy, or logistical factors including distance from qualified hospital or a rate of rapid birth. Induction of labor may only occur if the mother does not have cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD), the fetus has a vertex presentation with an engaged head, and the mother has a "ripened" cervic or is prepared to be "ripened". Fetal macrosomia is a concerning condition and may require intervention, but is typically not resolved by inducing labor. With fetal macrosomia, a cesarean section may be considered instead of vaginal delivery, due to the potential risks of delivering a large infant vaginally.

Example Question #3 : Causes And Treatments Of Ob/Gyn Conditions

What is the most common form of female reproductive tumor?

Possible Answers:

Choriocarcinoma

Uterine leiomyoma

Yolk sac tumor

Endometrial adenocarcinoma

Correct answer:

Uterine leiomyoma

Explanation:

The most common tumor of the female reproductive tract by far is uterine leiomyoma, also known as a uterine fibroid. Uterine fibroids are benign smooth muscle tumors that grow into the myometrium. They can often cause pain in the lower back or pain during penetration, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia.  

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