NCLEX : Bone Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Bone Physiology

Calcium is required for all of the following except __________.

Possible Answers:

nerve conduction

All of these require calcium

muscle contraction

blood clotting

Correct answer:

All of these require calcium

Explanation:

Calcium is essential for many processes of the body, including but not limited to nerve conduction, muscle contraction, blood clotting, and bone mineralization.

Example Question #2 : Bone Physiology

Which of the following lists the zones of endochondral ossification in the correct order?

Possible Answers:

Maturation, proliferation, resting, ossification, calcification

Proliferation, maturation, resting, calcification, ossification

Resting, proliferation, maturation, calcification, ossification

Proliferation, calcification, maturation, ossification, resting

Correct answer:

Resting, proliferation, maturation, calcification, ossification

Explanation:

There are five distinct zones in regions of endochondral ossification. These are the resting zone, the zone of proliferation, the zone of maturation, the zone of calcification, and the zone of ossification. 

Example Question #3 : Bone Physiology

In what zone of endochondral ossification do the chondrocytes typically die off, leaving cavities for colonization by osteoprogenitor cells?

Possible Answers:

The zone of proliferation

The zone of maturation

The resting zone

The zone of ossification

The zone of calcification

Correct answer:

The zone of calcification

Explanation:

The behavior of cells in the zones of endochondral ossification is as follows:

  • The resting zone: normal resting chondrocytes within hyaline cartilage
  • The zone of proliferation: rapid mitosis of chondrocytes
  • The zone of maturation: hypertrophy of chondrocytes
  • The zone of calcification: the death of chondrocytes due to lack of nutrients and inability to eliminate cellular wastes
  • The zone of ossification: migration of osteoprogenitor cells into the cavities left behind by dead chondrocytes and mineralization of newly formed bone

Example Question #4 : Bone Physiology

Which of the following mineral gives bone it's rigid structure?

Possible Answers:

Hydroxyapatite

Collagen

Phosphate

Calcium

Correct answer:

Hydroxyapatite

Explanation:

The rigid structure of bone is created by hydroxyapatite, a calcium apatite that contains both calcium and phosphate in the formula:Ca5(PO4)3(OH). Both calcium and phosphate are necessary to create bone structure—a deficiency of either will degrade the structural integrity of the bone matrix. Last, collagen is a protein rather than a mineral, and primarily functions to add flexibility to bone in order to prevent fracture.

Example Question #5 : Bone Physiology

Bones are made up of which of the following three tissue types?

Possible Answers:

Cortical bone, cancellous bone, and bone marrow

Cancellous bone, spongy bone, and and trabecular bone

Compact bone, white marrow, and red marrow

Cancellous bone, fat, and bone marrow

Correct answer:

Cortical bone, cancellous bone, and bone marrow

Explanation:

Bones are made up of the following three primary tissue types:

I: Cortical bone, which is the hard exterior layer (also referred to as "compact bone);

II: Cancellous bone, which is the porous bone tissue that fills the center of bones (also referred to as "spongy bone" or "trabecular" bone tissue); and

III: Bone marrow, a hematopoietic tissue that fills spaces in trabecular bone.

Example Question #6 : Bone Physiology

Which of the following is the term for the functional unit of compact bone?

Possible Answers:

Osteon

Lamellae

Haversian canal

Trabeculae

Correct answer:

Osteon

Explanation:

The functional unit of compact bone is the osteon. The osteon is formed by concentric layers of compact bone called lamellae. These surround a central canal called the haversian canal. Trabeculae are the functional units of cancellous (spongy) bone.

Example Question #7 : Bone Physiology

Which of the following cells is responsible for depositing hydroxyapatite into bone matrix?

Possible Answers:

Myelocytes

Osteoblasts

Osteocytes

Osteoclasts

Correct answer:

Osteoblasts

Explanation:

Osteoblasts are the cells responsible for the deposition of hydroxyapatite into bone matrix. In addition to hydroxyapatite, they synthesize collagen, osteocalcin, and osteopontin. Osteocytes are undifferentiated osteoblasts, while osteoclast cells function in opposition to osteoblasts by removal of mineralization from the bony matrix. Myelocytes and normoblasts are both hematopoietic cells of the bone marrow and do not take part in bone mineralization.

 

Example Question #8 : Bone Physiology

Which of the following is in the haversian canal?

Possible Answers:

Periosteum

Red bone marrow

White bone marrow

Capillaries and nerves

Correct answer:

Capillaries and nerves

Explanation:

The haversian canal allows capillaries and nerves to pass through the cortical bone to nourish osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts. Both the white and the red bone marrow are contained within trabecular bone, while the periosteum is a thin, highly innervated membrane on the outside of bone. 

Example Question #9 : Bone Physiology

In regards to bone marrow, "red marrow" is primarily made up of ___________ cells, while "yellow marrow" is primarily made up of ___________ cells.

Possible Answers:

active. . . dormant

hematopoietic. . . fat

erythrocytic. . . leukocytic

proliferating. . . calcified

Correct answer:

hematopoietic. . . fat

Explanation:

Variation in color of bone marrow cells is not related to their level of activity, calcification, or the types of blood cells they produce. Rather, "red marrow" is primarily hematopoietic cells (both red and white progenitor cells) while "yellow marrow" is primarily composed of fat cells. 

Example Question #10 : Bone Physiology

Growth in long bones must occur at the __________

Possible Answers:

epiphyseal plate

diaphysis

epiphysis

suture

Correct answer:

epiphyseal plate

Explanation:

Growth in long bones occurs at the epiphyseal plate, a region of hyaline cartilage at the metaphysis of the bone. In adolescents and children, cartilage cells are ossified by osteoblasts to increase bone length. Once adulthood is reached, the epiphyseal plate becomes the epiphyseal line at the junction of the epiphysis and the diaphysis (the center of the bone). The diaphysis and epiphysis themselves are composed of mature ossified bone and do not proliferate (they are simply added to by transformation of cells in the epiphyseal plate). A suture is a fibrous joint of the cranium and does not contribute to the development of long bones.

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