NCLEX : Bone Identification

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Musculoskeletal System And Anatomy

Which of the following is the most superior vertebra of the spine?

Possible Answers:

The dens

The atlas

The coccyx

The axis

Correct answer:

The atlas

Explanation:

The most superior vertebra of the spine is the atlas, or C1. This bone sits on the axis, or C2, over a bony process called the dens. The coccyx, or "tailbone," is part of the sacrum.

Example Question #2 : Musculoskeletal System And Anatomy

How many cervical vertebrae are in the human spine?

Possible Answers:

5

7

12

6

Correct answer:

7

Explanation:

There are 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae. The mnemonic for this is "breakfast at 7, lunch at 12, dinner at 5."

Example Question #3 : Musculoskeletal System And Anatomy

What bone forms the most posterior and inferior part of the skull?

Possible Answers:

The ethmoid bone

The maxilla

The sphenoid bone

The occiput

Correct answer:

The occiput

Explanation:

The occiput is the inferior and posterior bone of the skull. It wraps under the bottom of the skull and forms the base on which the head articulates with the spine. The ethmoid bone and sphenoid bone are housed primarily within the skull, and the maxilla forms the upper jaw and part of the orbit.

Example Question #4 : Musculoskeletal System And Anatomy

What is the name for the bony protuberance(s) at which the occipital bone articulates with the atlas (C1)?

Possible Answers:

The occipital condyles

The external occipital crest

The external occipital protuberance

The inion

Correct answer:

The occipital condyles

Explanation:

The bony protuberance(s) at which the occipital bone articulates with the atlas (C1) are the occipital condyles. The external occipital protuberance, external occipital crest, and inion are all part of the occipital bone and serve as the attachment points for various muscles and ligaments.

Example Question #5 : Musculoskeletal System And Anatomy

What suture joins the frontal bone to the parietal bones? 

Possible Answers:

The sagittal suture

The parietal suture

The frontal suture

The coronal suture

Correct answer:

The coronal suture

Explanation:

The suture that joins the frontal bone to the parietal bones is the coronal suture. The sagittal suture joins the two parietal bones together along the sagittal plane of the skull. There are no sutures named after the frontal or parietal bones themselves.

Example Question #1 : Bone Identification

A patient presents to the ER complaining of "pain in his heart." When the nurse asks him to point to the area that he feels the pain, he places his finger on the bony protuberance just below his rib cage. Seeing this, the nurse has reason to suspect that his pain may be gastrointestinal or musculoskeletal in origin as well as cardiac. What bony protuberance is this patient likely touching? 

Possible Answers:

The xiphoid process

The body of the sternum

The manubrium

The costal cartilage

Correct answer:

The xiphoid process

Explanation:

The costal cartilage of the ribcage is joined to the sternum, which is made up of three bony structures: the most superior is the manubrium, which articulates not just with the costal cartilage of the first rib but also with the clavicles. The body of the sternum is inferior to the manubrium, and articulates with the second through fifth ribs. The xiphoid process is a small protuberance just below the body of the sternum, at the point where the bottom of the ribcage meets the sternum. It is an attachment point for several muscles, including the diaphragm, the rectus abdominis, and the transverse abdominis. This is a common location for referred pain from gallbladder disease, GERD, or pain due to musculoskeletal injury or irritation. 

Example Question #7 : Musculoskeletal System And Anatomy

Which of the following is the name of the bony landmark that forms the ridge of the brow?

Possible Answers:

The orbit

The superciliary arch

The coronoid process

The glabella

Correct answer:

The superciliary arch

Explanation:

The bony ridge of the brow is formed by the superciliary processes (superciliary means super, or above, cilia, the lens of the eye). The orbit refers to the bony socket in which the eye sits. The glabella is the small depression between the eyebrows where the two superciliary arches meet. The coronoid process is part of the mandible, or jawbone, and unrelated to the brow.

Example Question #2 : Bone Identification

What structures of the skull form the cheek bones?

Possible Answers:

The zygomatic arches

The pterion

The mental protuberance 

The styloid processes

Correct answer:

The zygomatic arches

Explanation:

The cheek bones are formed by the zygomatic arches, which are part of the temporal bones of the face. The mental protuberance forms the chin, the styloid processes are just under the ears and serve as an attachment point for several muscles of the mouth and throat, and the pterion is the suture where the frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones come together.

Example Question #3 : Bone Identification

Which of the following is the name for the foramen that forms the ear canal?

Possible Answers:

The internal auditory meatus

The external auditory meatus

The foramen rotundum

The foramen ovale

Correct answer:

The external auditory meatus

Explanation:

The foramen that forms the ear canal is called the external auditory meatus. This travels through the temporal bone and joins the inner ear to the outer ear. The internal auditory meatus passes through the temporal bone between the posterior cranial fossa and the inner ear, and is the track through which the vestibulocochlear nerve, the facial nerve, and the labyrinthine artery travel from the inner ear toward the CNS. The foramen ovale and foramen rotundum are both openings in the sphenoid bones and have to connection to the ear.

Example Question #10 : Musculoskeletal System And Anatomy

What is the name of the large opening through which the spinal cord exits the skull?

Possible Answers:

The foramen cecum

The foramen magnum

The foramen spinosum

The jugular foramen

Correct answer:

The foramen magnum

Explanation:

The large opening in the occipital bone at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord exits the skull is called the foramen magnum, or "large hole." It is by far the largest foramen of the skull, and generally measures 1.5-3.5 centimeters in the normal adult. The foramen spinosum, foramen cecum, and jugular foramen are all smaller foramen of the skull that transmit various blood vessels and cranial nerves.

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