"Today the student and I continued to practice discriminating between different sounds in words and identifying the associated letters by re-arranging the same letters to make different words. We introduced the short "o" sound, found in "horse" and "dog". After reading "horse" several times, we replaced the "h" with "g" to make the nonsense word "gorse". Then we moved onto practice with real words, starting with "pot", moving to "pots" moving to "stop". After he had a good handle on "stop" he practiced writing it with his finger on my tablet. On his first try, he wrote a nearly perfect "s", one that rivals any other "s" written by a 5 year old I've ever seen! This was a big win, because he struggled a lot with writing the "s" on Friday. Since he did so well with "stop" we moved on to "dog", "dot" and "got" practicing exchanging the first and last sounds in words. He was correctly identifying the letter sounds about 80% of the time, but he did need significant wait time to figure out the sounds on his own. Several times he told me "I don't know that sound" to which I responded that it was OK he didn't know the sound right away, because we could always figure it out based on the things we did know. Then I'd walk him through the different sounds again until he was able to identify them himself. The repetition here seems to be really key--I can tell he doesn't really know the difference between most of the sounds, even when he hears them, so I've been really focusing on the way the different sounds feel in your mouth/throat/nose as a way of helping him get that auditory discrimination down. Letters that sound very similar, like "d" "t" and "g" feel very different when you say them, and this understanding seems to be helping him. He's doing very well identifying beginning sounds, and fairly well identifying ending sounds in words, but he has a really hard time hearing the differences between middle sounds (i.e. the specific difference between "stop" and the nonsense word "stap ". He's come along way already, though!"