MCAT Social and Behavioral Sciences : Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for MCAT Social and Behavioral Sciences

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

All MCAT Social and Behavioral Sciences Resources

133 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept

Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Parkinson's Disease And Alzheimer's Disease

Which of the following is most closely linked to Parkinson's Disease?

Possible Answers:

Reduced presence of beta-amyloid proteins

Deterioration of cholinergic neurons in the substantia nigra region

Deterioration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region

Progressive memory loss

All of these are characteristic of Parkinson's Disease

Correct answer:

Deterioration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region

Explanation:

Parkinson's is a degenerative neuromuscular disease, often associated with muscular tremors and shaking. In later stages, the neurological symptoms become more evident. While the exact cause of Parkinson's Disease is unknown (it is still considered idiopathic), there are correlations that suggest the cause is linked to the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region of the midbrain. Beta-amyloid protein plaques are also associated with Parkinson's Disease, as well as Alzheimer's Disease.

Example Question #2 : Parkinson's Disease And Alzheimer's Disease

Treatment for Alzheimer's disease involves the use of cholinergic drugs that are aimed at __________.

Possible Answers:

improving memory

preventing sleep disturbances 

orienting patents to reality

improving muscular coordination

curing the disease

Correct answer:

improving memory

Explanation:

Cholinergic drugs used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease are used to improve memory rather than to cure the disease. These drugs can slow the decline in cognitive function.  Patients in the early stages of the disease can benefit from reality orientation, which involves the repetition of verbal and nonverbal information to remind the person of names, dates, and other pertinent information. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive degenerative cognitive disorder. Although motor capabilities are assessed, the disease primarily involves loss of cognition, not motor function. If a patient is experiencing sleep disturbances, sleeping during daytime hours is discouraged.

Example Question #3 : Parkinson's Disease And Alzheimer's Disease

Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of which system?

Possible Answers:

Digestive system

Antibacterial system

Nervous system

Vascular system 

Pulmonary system

Correct answer:

Nervous system

Explanation:

The correct asnwer is the nervous system; this is what causes the tremors commonly associated with Parkinson's disease. 

Example Question #4 : Parkinson's Disease And Alzheimer's Disease

Which of the following proteins become "tangled" in Alzheimer's disease patients?

Possible Answers:

Lewy bodies

C-reactive proteins

Prion proteins (PrP)

Tau proteins

Correct answer:

Tau proteins

Explanation:

"Tau proteins," proteins that aid in the cellular transport system of neurons, often become tangled in the brains of Alzheimer's disease, resulting in loss of cellular nutrient and waste transport and eventual cell death.

The other choices are incorrect. "Prion proteins" are found in various prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy. "Lewy bodies" are symptomatic of Parkinson's disease, while "C-reactive proteins" are elevated in any condition associated with inflammation.

All MCAT Social and Behavioral Sciences Resources

133 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept
Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors

Incompatible Browser

Please upgrade or download one of the following browsers to use Instant Tutoring: