MCAT Social and Behavioral Sciences : Other Aspects of Social Change

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for MCAT Social and Behavioral Sciences

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

All MCAT Social and Behavioral Sciences Resources

133 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept

Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Other Aspects Of Social Change

Excerpt from “Two Kinds of Vocational Education” by Julius T. House, 1921

American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Sep., 1921), pp. 222-225

               

There are two schools of thinkers interested in vocational education. One of these is individualistic, thinks in teams of fitting the child to the job, accepts the present economic system with little, if any, criticism. It would isolate consideration of the vocation, so far as possible, from consideration of its social purposes. Psychologically its plan is based upon habit, with no thought of developing in the child a sense of the relation of his work to the whole social process. To secure the result sought there must be early separation of technical schools from the rest of the school system. It is proposed to begin with the seventh grade, the so-called junior high school.

The purpose of the technical school is and will be to get the answer, already known to the teacher, by the shortest route. Emphasis will be laid on rapid calculation; swift, effective movement; automatic response. The typewriter, the shorthand notebook, the hammer and nail, the stove, the furnace, the retort, are the instruments of education. A technique of salesmanship and advertising, without the regard to the ethics of these operations and with no comprehension of the principles of psychology, is developed. Rough-and-ready adaptation to a rough-and-ready business world is the goal.

Certain results follow: (1) Even more rigid division of industrial life between two groups: those who manage, in whom power of initiative is vested; those who are skilled in narrow processes with no outlook upon the meaning of the work. (2) The exploitation of this isolated class. (3) The establishment of an institution to perpetuate this condition. Custom is already being instituted of sending the children of poor families to this manual-skill-producing school. (4) Public taxation to support institutions to assist business based on the supposition that when business prospers moral values take care of themselves.

The second group of thinkers, seemingly few but with men like John Dewey leading, are interested in vocational education as a means of introducing the child more intimately into the life of society. It is believed that such study should be directed to the perception of the relation of vocations to all the social process. Therefore all the students are to study all the vocations. The choice of a life-work will be, then, only a by-product of the training—important indeed, but still a by-product. Already such work is done in the grades. It remains only to enlarge it and relate it to the proper sciences as the later years of school life are reached.

What is one of the author’s complaints with the financial aspect of the individualistic viewpoint of vocational education?

Possible Answers:

Private businesses should not have to cover the costs of programs that do not directly affect them.

Graduates of technical school will be paid less than conventional university education, so it wouldn’t make sense.

By allowing public funding of individualistic vocational schools, the public pays for businesses to get a more qualified work force.

Increased efficiency in vocational training will create more opportunities for people to compete for high-paying jobs, which will end up driving down wages.

Correct answer:

By allowing public funding of individualistic vocational schools, the public pays for businesses to get a more qualified work force.

Explanation:

When detailing the “certain results” of the individualistic style of school, the author explains that businesses would be indirectly supported by public taxation. The other choices were not stated or implied by the author. Nothing was mentioned about wage changes or the relationship between wages from technical school graduation and conventional university. The author points out that private businesses would not have to cover costs of changes to the school system; it would be the public.

All MCAT Social and Behavioral Sciences Resources

133 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept
Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors

Incompatible Browser

Please upgrade or download one of the following browsers to use Instant Tutoring: