MCAT Biology : Ovaries and Testes

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for MCAT Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #12 : Glands

The luteal surge in females results when there is an increase in the concentration of __________ which, subsequently, __________ the concentration of estrogen.

Possible Answers:

luteinizing hormone . . . increases

luteinizing hormone . . . decreases

follicle-stimulating hormone . . . increases

follicle-stimulating hormone . . . decreases

Correct answer:

luteinizing hormone . . . increases

Explanation:

In a female, the luteal surge occurs during the menstrual cycle. Its main function is to increase the concentration of luteinizing hormone, or LH. LH is released in both males and females and its main function is to increase the concentration of testosterone in males and estrogen in females; therefore, the luteal surge in females increases the concentration of LH, which causes an increase in estrogen.

Example Question #13 : Glands

What hormone functions to prepare the uterus for fertilization and produces menstrual bleeding if fertilization does not occur?

Possible Answers:

Progesterone

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Estrogen

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Luteinizing hormone

Correct answer:

Progesterone

Explanation:

Progesterone functions to prepare the lining of the uterus for implantation of the egg, and also produces menstrual bleeding if pregnancy does not occur.

Estrogen induces the development of female sex characteristics. Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates the synthesis and secretion of estrogen. Luteinizing hormone stimulates progesterone production. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone controls the release of follicle-stimulating hormone. 

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