ISEE Middle Level Reading : Identifying and Analyzing Main Idea and Theme in Science Passages

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ISEE Middle Level Reading

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Example Question #21 : Authorial Attitude, Tone, And Purpose In Narrative Science Passages

Adapted from “In Mammoth Cave” by John Burroughs (1894)

Some idea of the impression which Mammoth Cave makes upon the senses, irrespective even of sight, may be had from the fact that blind people go there to see it, and are greatly struck with it. I was assured that this is a fact. The blind seem as much impressed by it as those who have their sight. When the guide pauses at a more interesting point, or lights the scene up with a great torch or with small flares, and points out the more striking features, the blind exclaim, "How wonderful! How beautiful!" They can feel it, if they cannot see it. They get some idea of the spaciousness when words are uttered. The voice goes forth in these colossal chambers like a bird. When no word is spoken, the silence is of a kind never experienced on the surface of the earth, it is so profound and abysmal. This, and the absolute darkness, to a sighted person makes him feel as if he were face to face with the primordial nothingness. The objective universe is gone; only the subjective remains; the sense of hearing is inverted, and reports only the murmurs from within. The blind miss much, but much remains to them. The great cave is not merely a spectacle to the eye; it is a wonder to the ear, a strangeness to the smell and to the touch. The body feels the presence of unusual conditions through every pore.

Why does the author describe the experience of the blind in Mammoth Cave?

Possible Answers:

To demonstrate the profound effect that Mammoth Cave has on everyone

To show the resiliency of blind people

To argue that blind people should not be allowed to go to Mammoth Cave

To postulate that seeing the cave detracts from the experience

To demonstrate a difference between himself and blind people

Correct answer:

To demonstrate the profound effect that Mammoth Cave has on everyone

Explanation:

The author references the experience of blind people in Mammoth Cave to show how the cave stimulates more than one sense and affects everyone who visits it greatly. The author states that: “They can feel it, if they cannot see it. They get some idea of the spaciousness when words are uttered.” The experience of blind people in Mammoth Cave is meant to demonstrate the profound effect that the cave has on all who visit it.

Example Question #151 : Isee Middle Level (Grades 7 8) Reading Comprehension

"Interpreting the Copernican Revolution" by Matthew Minerd (2014)

The expressions of one discipline can often alter the way that other subjects understand themselves. Among such cases are numbered the investigations of Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus is best known for his views concerning heliocentrism, a view which eventually obliterated many aspects of the ancient/medieval worldview, at least from the standpoint of physical science. It had always been the natural view of mankind that the earth stood at the center of the universe, a fixed point in reference to the rest of the visible bodies. The sun, stars, and planets all rotated around the earth.

With time, this viewpoint became one of the major reference points for modern life. It provided a provocative image that was used—and often abused—by many people for various purposes. For those who wished to weaken the control of religion on mankind, it was said that the heliocentric outlook proved man’s insignificance. In contrast with earlier geocentrism, heliocentrism was said to show that man is not the center of the universe. He is merely one small being in the midst of a large cosmos. However, others wished to use the “Copernican Revolution” in a very different manner. These thinkers wanted to show that there was another “recentering” that had to happen. Once upon a time, we talked about the world. Now, however, it was necessary to talk of man as the central reference point. Just as the solar system was “centered” on the sun, so too should the sciences be centered on the human person.

However, both of these approaches are fraught with problems. Those who wished to undermine the religious mindset rather misunderstood the former outlook on the solar system. The earlier geocentric mindset did not believe that the earth was the most important body in the heavens. Instead, many ancient and medieval thinkers believed that the highest “sphere” above the earth was the most important being in the physical universe. Likewise, the so-called “Copernican Revolution” in physics was different from the one applied to the human person. Copernicus’ revolution showed that the human point of view was not the center, whereas the later forms of “Copernican revolution” wished to show just the opposite.

Of course, there are many complexities in the history of such important changes in scientific outlook. Nevertheless, it is fascinating to see the wide-reaching effects of such discoveries, even when they have numerous, ambiguous effects.

What can we say, in general, about the interpretations that have been offered for the effects of Copernicus’ discoveries?

Possible Answers:

They have been abused for tyrannical purposes by many parties.

They have provided the grounds for a fruitful dialogue between religion and science.

They have unlocked a number of themes that were long hidden by the powers of religion and authoritarian regimes.

They have been used more according to the disposition of their interpreters than in accord with the reality of the facts.

None of the other answers

Correct answer:

They have been used more according to the disposition of their interpreters than in accord with the reality of the facts.

Explanation:

While the passage does catalogue two different worldviews that emerged from Copernicus' findings, it ultimately stresses the point that such outlooks are both limited because of their adherents' biases. Neither of them really reads the history or even the general images correctly. It seems that each one uses the findings as an occasion for strengthening his or her outlook on reality, whatever that might be.

Example Question #1 : Identifying And Analyzing Main Idea And Theme In Science Passages

Adapted from “Humming-Birds: As Illustrating the Luxuriance of Tropical Nature” in Tropical Nature, and Other Essays by Alfred Russel Wallace (1878)

The food of hummingbirds has been a matter of much controversy. All the early writers down to Buffon believed that they lived solely on the nectar of flowers, but since that time, every close observer of their habits maintains that they feed largely, and in some cases wholly, on insects. Azara observed them on the La Plata in winter taking insects out of the webs of spiders at a time and place where there were no flowers. Bullock, in Mexico, declares that he saw them catch small butterflies, and that he found many kinds of insects in their stomachs. Waterton made a similar statement. Hundreds and perhaps thousands of specimens have since been dissected by collecting naturalists, and in almost every instance their stomachs have been found full of insects, sometimes, but not generally, mixed with a proportion of honey. Many of them in fact may be seen catching gnats and other small insects just like fly-catchers, sitting on a dead twig over water, darting off for a time in the air, and then returning to the twig. Others come out just at dusk, and remain on the wing, now stationary, now darting about with the greatest rapidity, imitating in a limited space the evolutions of the goatsuckers, and evidently for the same end and purpose. Mr. Gosse also remarks, ” All the hummingbirds have more or less the habit, when in flight, of pausing in the air and throwing the body and tail into rapid and odd contortions. This is most observable in the Polytmus, from the effect that such motions have on the long feathers of the tail. That the object of these quick turns is the capture of insects, I am sure, having watched one thus engaged pretty close to me.”

The purpose of this passage is __________.

Possible Answers:

to critique the opinions of other scientists

to consider the opinions of scientists on what hummingbirds eat

to propose a definitive experiment about what hummingbirds eat

to explain why one should feed a captive hummingbird insects and not flower nectar

to discuss the Polytmus’ feeding habits

Correct answer:

to consider the opinions of scientists on what hummingbirds eat

Explanation:

When answering questions about a passage’s purpose or main idea, it’s important to pick an answer choice that is broad enough to encompass the entire passage. For instance, while the Polytmus’ feeding habits are discussed in the passage, it can’t be said to be the purpose of the passage, since it’s only mentioned as a small detail. The passage can’t be said to critique the opinions of other scientists, because for the most part, the author quotes findings by scientists with whom he does not disagree. A definitive experiment is never proposed, and captive hummingbirds are never discussed. The passage does provide the opinions of scientists on what hummingbirds eat; this accurately captures the intent of the entire passage, not just some of its parts, and doesn’t state it too broadly.

Example Question #1 : Argumentative Science Passages

Adapted from “Introduced Species That Have Become Pests” in Our Vanishing Wild Life, Its Extermination and Protection by William Temple Hornaday (1913)

The man who successfully transplants or "introduces" into a new habitat any persistent species of living thing assumes a very grave responsibility. Every introduced species is doubtful gravel until panned out. The enormous losses that have been inflicted upon the world through the perpetuation of follies with wild vertebrates and insects would, if added together, be enough to purchase a principality. The most aggravating feature of these follies in transplantation is that never yet have they been made severely punishable. We are just as careless and easygoing on this point as we were about the government of the Yellowstone Park in the days when Howell and other poachers destroyed our first national bison herd, and when caught red-handed—as Howell was, skinning seven Park bison cows—could not be punished for it, because there was no penalty prescribed by any law. Today, there is a way in which any revengeful person could inflict enormous damage on the entire South, at no cost to himself, involve those states in enormous losses and the expenditure of vast sums of money, yet go absolutely unpunished!

The gypsy moth is a case in point. This winged calamity was imported at Maiden, Massachusetts, near Boston, by a French entomologist, Mr. Leopold Trouvelot, in 1868 or 69. History records the fact that the man of science did not purposely set free the pest. He was endeavoring with live specimens to find a moth that would produce a cocoon of commercial value to America, and a sudden gust of wind blew out of his study, through an open window, his living and breeding specimens of the gypsy moth. The moth itself is not bad to look at, but its larvae is a great, overgrown brute with an appetite like a hog. Immediately Mr. Trouvelot sought to recover his specimens, and when he failed to find them all, like a man of real honor, he notified the State authorities of the accident. Every effort was made to recover all the specimens, but enough escaped to produce progeny that soon became a scourge to the trees of Massachusetts. The method of the big, nasty-looking mottled-brown caterpillar was very simple. It devoured the entire foliage of every tree that grew in its sphere of influence.

The gypsy moth spread with alarming rapidity and persistence. In course of time, the state authorities of Massachusetts were forced to begin a relentless war upon it, by poisonous sprays and by fire. It was awful! Up to this date (1912) the New England states and the United States Government service have expended in fighting this pest about $7,680,000!

The spread of this pest has been retarded, but the gypsy moth never will be wholly stamped out. Today it exists in Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire, and it is due to reach New York at an early date. It is steadily spreading in three directions from Boston, its original point of departure, and when it strikes the State of New York, we, too, will begin to pay dearly for the Trouvelot experiment.

How does the author feel about Howell?

Possible Answers:

The author greatly dislikes Howell for his audacious disrespect for nature.

The author is annoyed by Howell’s insistence that invasive species do not cause significant problems.

The author thinks that Howell made a great mistake in releasing Gypsy moths into the United States.

The author likes Howell because he helped identify a problem with the consequences available for environmental disruptors.

The author agrees with Howell that invasive species are often problematic.

Correct answer:

The author greatly dislikes Howell for his audacious disrespect for nature.

Explanation:

Let’s look at the part of the first paragraph in which the author brings up Howell, paying attention to why he does so:

“The most aggravating feature of these follies in transplantation is that never yet have they been made severely punishable. We are just as careless and easygoing on this point as we were about the government of the Yellowstone Park in the days when Howell and other poachers destroyed our first national bison herd, and when caught red-handed—as Howell was, skinning seven Park bison cows—could not be punished for it, because there was no penalty prescribed by any law.”

In mentioning Howell, the author is providing an example supporting his argument that harsher legal penalties are necessary for those who harm the environment. The author describes Howell as a “poacher” who “destroyed our first national bison herd” and was “caught red-handed.” From this, we can tell that the best answer choice is “the author greatly dislikes Howell for his audacious disrespect for nature.” 

One of the other answer choices attempts to get you to confuse Howell with Mr. Trouvelot, who released the gypsy moths—don’t fall for that! Check the passage if you are worried at all about confusing the two so you can avoid pitfall answers like that one.

Example Question #152 : Isee Middle Level (Grades 7 8) Reading Comprehension

Adapted from Volume Four of The Natural History of Animals: The Animal Life of the World in Its Various Aspects and Relations by James Richard Ainsworth Davis (1903)

The examples of protective resemblance so far quoted are mostly permanent adaptations to one particular sort of surrounding. There are, however, numerous animals which possess the power of adjusting their color more or less rapidly so as to harmonize with a changing environment.

Some of the best known of these cases are found among those mammals and birds that inhabit countries more or less covered with snow during a part of the year. A good instance is afforded by the Irish or variable hare, which is chiefly found in Ireland and Scotland. In summer, this looks very much like an ordinary hare, though rather grayer in tint and smaller in size, but in winter it becomes white with the exception of the black tips to the ears. Investigations that have been made on the closely allied American hare seem to show that the phenomenon is due to the growth of new hairs of white hue. 

The common stoat is subject to similar color change in the northern parts of its range. In summer it is of a bright reddish brown color with the exception of the under parts, which are yellowish white, and the end of the tail, which is black. But in winter, the entire coat, save only the tip of the tail, becomes white, and in that condition the animal is known as an ermine. A similar example is afforded by the weasel. The seasonal change in the vegetarian Irish hare is purely of protective character, but in such an actively carnivorous creature as a stoat or weasel, it is aggressive as well, rendering the animal inconspicuous to its prey.

Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

Possible Answers:

Increased defense is the only reason for an animal to change its fur color.

The Scottish hare changes its fur color.

Animals like the stoat, the weasel, and the Irish hare are better adapted to changing environments than to unchanging ones.

Certain animals change their fur color to be better predators or better at hiding.

All animals that live in a changing environment change color.

Correct answer:

Certain animals change their fur color to be better predators or better at hiding.

Explanation:

When answering questions about the main idea of a passage, it’s important to pick out an answer choice to which each paragraph relates, but one that isn’t too broad. Some of the answer choices to this question are too specific: “The Scottish hare changes its fur color” is, and we can tell because the first paragraph doesn’t say anything about the Scottish hare, and the third paragraph only mentions it in its last line. “Increased defense is the only reason for an animal to change its fur color” should get your attention due to its use of the word “only”—did we hear anything in the passage about color-changing adaptations being used “only” for defense? No, we heard the opposite, in the passage’s last line: “The seasonal change in the vegetarian Irish hare is purely of protective character, but in such an actively carnivorous creature as a stoat or weasel, it is aggressive as well, rendering the animal inconspicuous to its prey.” The language may be a bit dense here, but what the passage is saying is that the hare uses its color-changing adaptation for defense, but stoats and weasels use it for being better predators and sneaking up on their prey—definitely not a defensive use. Similarly, “All animals that live in a changing environment change color” is making a strong statement due to its use of the word “all.” The passage gives us a few examples of animals that change that live in a changing environment and change their color, but this isn’t enough for us to assume that all animals that live in changing environments act this way. 

Example Question #153 : Isee Middle Level (Grades 7 8) Reading Comprehension

Adapted from Cassell’s Natural History by Francis Martin Duncan (1913)

The penguins are a group of birds inhabiting the southern ocean, for the most part passing their lives in the icy waters of the Antarctic seas. Like the ratitae, penguins have lost the power of flight, but the wings are modified into swimming organs and the birds lead an aquatic existence and are scarcely seen on land except in the breeding season. They are curious-looking creatures that appear to have no legs, as the limbs are encased in the skin of the body and the large flat feet are set so far back that the birds waddle along on land in an upright position in a very ridiculous manner, carrying their long narrow flippers held out as if they were arms. When swimming, penguins use their wings as paddles while the feet are used for steering.

Penguins are usually gregarious—in the sea, they swim together in schools, and on land, assemble in great numbers in their rookeries. They are very methodical in their ways, and on leaving the water, the birds always follow well-defined tracks leading to the rookeries, marching with much solemnity one behind the other in soldierly order. 

The largest species of penguins are the king penguin and the emperor penguin, the former being found in Kerguelen Land, the Falklands, and other southern islands, and the latter in Victoria Land and on the pack ice of the Antarctic seas. As they are unaccustomed from the isolation of their haunts to being hunted and persecuted by man, emperor penguins are remarkably fearless, and Antarctic explorers invading their territory have found themselves objects of curiosity rather than fear to the strange birds who followed them about as if they were much astonished at their appearance. 

The emperor penguin lays but a single egg and breeds during the intense cold and darkness of the Antarctic winter. To prevent contact with the frozen snow, the bird places its egg upon its flat webbed feet and crouches down upon it so that it is well covered with the feathers. In spite of this precaution, many eggs do not hatch and the mortality amongst the young chicks is very great.

Which of the following best describes this passage?

Possible Answers:

A general description of penguins

A description of different types of birds

The author’s personal story of visiting Antarctica and seeing penguins for the first time

An informational passage about how emperor penguins care for their eggs

A descriptive passage detailing the appearance of penguins

Correct answer:

A general description of penguins

Explanation:

When answering questions about a passage’s main idea or purpose, it is important not to pick the first answer that mentions something the passage talks about. To accurately represent the main idea of a passage, a statement has to relate to each of a passage’s paragraphs while not being too broad. For instance, “A description of different types of birds” is too broad to be the correct answer here, since the passage only talks about penguins. On the other hand, “An informational passage about how emperor penguins care for their eggs” cannot be correct because this is only discussed in the passage’s last paragraph, and “A descriptive passage detailing the appearance of penguins” cannot be correct because only the first paragraph in the passage describes the appearance of penguins. The passage can’t be best described as “The author’s personal story of visiting Antarctica and seeing penguins for the first time,” since this informational passage is presented in the third person perspective (it doesn’t use the “I” perspective) and doesn’t tell us anything that specifically happened to a given person. This leaves us with the correct answer: the passage is best described as “a general description of penguins.” Each of the passage’s paragraphs can be accurately described by this statement, and it isn’t too broad.

Example Question #154 : Isee Middle Level (Grades 7 8) Reading Comprehension

Adapted from “Feathers of Sea Birds and Wild Fowl for Bedding” from The Utility of Birds by Edward Forbush (ed. 1922)

In the colder countries of the world, the feathers and down of waterfowl have been in great demand for centuries as filling for beds and pillows. Such feathers are perfect non-conductors of heat, and beds, pillows, or coverlets filled with them represent the acme of comfort and durability. The early settlers of New England saved for such purposes the feathers and down from the thousands of wild-fowl which they killed, but as the population increased in numbers, the quantity thus furnished was insufficient, and the people sought a larger supply in the vast colonies of ducks and geese along the Labrador coast. 

The manner in which the feathers and down were obtained, unlike the method practiced in Iceland, did not tend to conserve and protect the source of supply. In Iceland, the people have continued to receive for many years a considerable income by collecting eider down, but there they do not “kill the goose that lays the golden eggs.” Ducks line their nests with down plucked from their own breasts and that of the eider is particularly valuable for bedding. In Iceland, these birds are so carefully protected that they have become as tame and unsuspicious as domestic fowls In North America. Where they are constantly hunted they often conceal their nests in the midst of weeds or bushes, but in Iceland, they make their nests and deposit their eggs in holes dug for them in the sod. A supply of the ducks is maintained so that the people derive from them an annual income.

In North America, quite a different policy was pursued. The demand for feathers became so great in the New England colonies about the middle of the eighteenth century that vessels were fitted out there for the coast of Labrador for the express purpose of securing the feathers and down of wild fowl. Eider down having become valuable and these ducks being in the habit of congregating by thousands on barren islands of the Labrador coast, the birds became the victims of the ships’ crews. As the ducks molt all their primary feathers at once in July or August and are then quite incapable of flight and the young birds are unable to fly until well grown, the hunters were able to surround the helpless birds, drive them together, and kill them with clubs. Otis says that millions of wildfowl were thus destroyed and that in a few years their haunts were so broken up by this wholesale slaughter and their numbers were so diminished that feather voyages became unprofitable and were given up. 

This practice, followed by the almost continual egging, clubbing, shooting, etc. by Labrador fishermen, may have been a chief factor in the extinction of the Labrador duck, that species of supposed restricted breeding range. No doubt had the eider duck been restricted in its breeding range to the islands of Labrador, it also would have been exterminated long ago.

Which of the following best states the main idea of this passage?

Possible Answers:

The North American and Icelandic methods of collecting eider down have had vastly different consequences. 

The Icelandic people collect eider down in an efficient and reasonable way.

The extinction of the Labrador duck can be traced to a definite cause.

Eider down is valuable as a source of bedding, leading to its collection from ducks.

Natural resources are precious.

Correct answer:

The North American and Icelandic methods of collecting eider down have had vastly different consequences. 

Explanation:

Questions that ask about a passage’s main idea need to encompass each of the topics it discusses while not describing them in a way that is too broad. We can ignore any answer choices that only describe parts of the passage—here, “Eider down is valuable as a source of bedding, leading to its collection from ducks,” “The extinction of the Labrador duck can be traced to a definite cause,” and “The Icelandic people collect eider down in an efficient and reasonable way.” This leaves us with “Natural resources are precious,” which is far too broad to accurately describe the passage’s main idea, and the correct answer, “The North American and Icelandic methods of collecting eider down have had vastly different consequences.”

Example Question #1 : Science Passages

"Abstraction in the Sciences" by Matthew Minerd (2014)

Thinking “abstractly” is not a term that means quite the same thing in all of the sciences. Although we rarely think about this, it plays a key role in almost all of our day-to-day thought. Consider a zoologist working in a lab with many animals. When she is studying any individual tiger, she is not completely worried about the particular tiger—at least not primarily. Instead, she is trying to figure out certain characteristics of tigers in general. By meticulous testing, the zoologist carefully works out the physiology of tigers and considers what are absolutely necessary elements of their physical makeup. Even when she places a tiger in different habitats, her sight is aimed at the general condition of tigers and their needs in general.

However, things become even stranger when you start to consider how we think about mathematical objects. Consider the case of geometric figures. A triangle appears to be rather simple for most of us to think about. You can draw a triangle on a piece of paper, each side having a certain thickness and length. However when you think about this in geometry class, the triangle’s edges have no real thickness. Neither a point nor a line has a thickness for the mathematician. Such a thickness only exists on our paper, which represents the point or line. Consider also a line drawn on a piece of graph paper. Technically, there are an infinite number of points in the line. Indeed, even between 4.5 and 4.6, there are an infinite number of numbers—for example 4.55 is between them, then 4.555 between 4.55 and 4.6, and 4.5555 between 4.555 and 4.6, et cetera. In all of these cases, the mathematical reality takes on a very peculiar character when you consider it in the abstract. However, the concrete triangle remains very tangible and ordinary. Likewise, 4.6 and 4.5 inches still have 0.1 inches between them. Nevertheless, in the abstract, mathematical realities are quite strange, even stranger then the idea of “a tiger in general.”

Which of the following would strengthen the ending of the first paragraph?

Possible Answers:

"Of course, she becomes quite attached to all of the animals in her care."

None of the other answers

"The details of any particular tiger’s life are interesting only as a means to this end."

"Each individual tiger has its own unique characteristics and abilities."

"Every animal is carefully tested as a potential test subject."

Correct answer:

"The details of any particular tiger’s life are interesting only as a means to this end."

Explanation:

As written, the last sentence in the first paragraph states that the scientist is interested in figuring out what "tigers in general" are like. Therefore, any particular tiger is not as important as this general nature of tigers (how they generally can live, thrive, etc).  The best way to end this paragraph is by reiterating this point, which is what the correct answer does.

Example Question #4 : Passage Reasoning In Natural Science Passages

"Interpreting the Copernican Revolution" by Matthew Minerd (2014)

The expressions of one discipline can often alter the way that other subjects understand themselves. Among such cases are numbered the investigations of Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus is best known for his views concerning heliocentrism, a view which eventually obliterated many aspects of the ancient/medieval worldview, at least from the standpoint of physical science. It had always been the natural view of mankind that the earth stood at the center of the universe, a fixed point in reference to the rest of the visible bodies. The sun, stars, and planets all rotated around the earth.

With time, this viewpoint became one of the major reference points for modern life. It provided a provocative image that was used—and often abused—by many people for various purposes. For those who wished to weaken the control of religion on mankind, it was said that the heliocentric outlook proved man’s insignificance. In contrast with earlier geocentrism, heliocentrism was said to show that man is not the center of the universe. He is merely one small being in the midst of a large cosmos. However, others wished to use the “Copernican Revolution” in a very different manner. These thinkers wanted to show that there was another “recentering” that had to happen. Once upon a time, we talked about the world. Now, however, it was necessary to talk of man as the central reference point. Just as the solar system was “centered” on the sun, so too should the sciences be centered on the human person.

However, both of these approaches are fraught with problems. Those who wished to undermine the religious mindset rather misunderstood the former outlook on the solar system. The earlier geocentric mindset did not believe that the earth was the most important body in the heavens. Instead, many ancient and medieval thinkers believed that the highest “sphere” above the earth was the most important being in the physical universe. Likewise, the so-called “Copernican Revolution” in physics was different from the one applied to the human person. Copernicus’ revolution showed that the human point of view was not the center, whereas the later forms of “Copernican revolution” wished to show just the opposite.

Of course, there are many complexities in the history of such important changes in scientific outlook. Nevertheless, it is fascinating to see the wide-reaching effects of such discoveries, even when they have numerous, ambiguous effects.

Why is the "Copernican revolution" of the human sciences contrary to the literal sense of Copernicus' findings?

Possible Answers:

Copernicus' findings aim only at disproving a former worldview, not finding new data around a new center of experience.

Copernicus' scientific aims immediately prove the fact that the human person is merely a speck on a rock in a large universe.

Copernicus' findings were focused on a new external "center," drawing attention away from the immediate center experienced in day-to-day life.

Copernicus' findings were scientific in contrast to nebulous humanistic aims.

None of the other answers

Correct answer:

Copernicus' findings were focused on a new external "center," drawing attention away from the immediate center experienced in day-to-day life.

Explanation:

The key sentence for this question is: "Copernicus’ revolution showed that the human point of view was not the center, whereas the later forms of 'Copernican revolution' wished to show just the opposite." To start looking at the sun as the center requires us to "look outward" in a new way, not paying attention to our particular earth-bound viewpoint. However, the "Copernican revolution" centered on humanity does just the opposite. It turns the gaze "inward," quite different from the literal sense of Copernicus' findings.

Example Question #3 : Science Passages

Adapted from "Bats" by W. S. Dallas in A Book of Natural History (1902, ed. David Starr Jordan)

Like the owls, with which they share the dominion of the evening air, the bats have a perfectly noiseless flight; their activity is chiefly during the twilight, although some species are later, and in fact seem to keep up throughout the whole night. As they rest during the day, concealed usually in the most inaccessible places they can find, and are seen only upon the wing, their power of flight is their most striking peculiarity in the popular mind, and it is perhaps no great wonder that by many people, both in ancient and modern times, they have been regarded as birds. Nevertheless, their hairy bodies and leathery wings are so unlike anything that we ordinarily understand as pertaining to a bird, that opinion was apparently always divided, as to the true nature of these creatures—“a mouse with wings,” as Goldsmith called it once, according to James Boswell, is certainly a curious animal, and very difficult to classify so long as the would-be systematist has no particularly definite ideas to guide him. The likeness of the bat to a winged mouse has made itself felt in the name given to the creature in many languages, such as the “chauvesouris” of the French and the “flitter-mouse” of some parts of England, the latter being reproduced almost literally in German, Dutch, and Swedish, while the Danes called the bat a “flogenmues,” which has about the same meaning.

Throughout this passage the author primarily highlights the __________ nature of bats.

Possible Answers:

nocturnal

mysterious

calculating

abrasive

unruly

Correct answer:

mysterious

Explanation:

At various parts of this passage, the author highlights the “mysterious" nature of bats. Although he does briefly mention the “nocturnal” (sleeping during the day and being awake at night) nature of bats, as when he says “their activity is chiefly during the twilight, although some species are later, and in fact seem to keep up throughout the whole night," this is not the primary focus. Examples of the author highlight the “mysterious” nature of bats can be seen when he says, “As they rest during the day, concealed usually in the most inaccessible places they can find,“ and “their power of flight is their most striking peculiarity in the popular mind,“ and “Nevertheless, their hairy bodies and leathery wings are so unlike anything that we ordinarily understand as pertaining to a bird, that opinion was apparently always divided, as to the true nature of these creatures.”

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