ISEE Middle Level Reading : Determining Context-Dependent Word Meanings in Contemporary Life Passages

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ISEE Middle Level Reading

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Example Questions

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Example Question #4 : How To Find The Meaning Of A Word

Adapted from The Spoiled Children of Civilization (1912) by Samuel McChord Crothers

To spoil a child is no easy task, for Nature is all the time working on behalf of the childish virtues and veracities, and is gently correcting the abnormalities of education. Still it can be done. The secret of it is never to let the child alone, and to insist on doing for him all that he would otherwise do for himself—and more.

In that "more" is the spoiling power. The child must be early made acquainted with the feeling of satiety. There must be too much of everything. If he were left to himself to any extent, this would be an unknown experience. For he is a hungry little creature, with a growing appetite, and naturally is busy ministering to his own needs. He is always doing something for himself, and enjoys the exercise. The little egoist, even when he has "no language but a cry," uses that language to make known to the world that he wants something and wants it very much. As his wants increase, his exertions increase also. Arms and legs, fingers and toes, muscles and nerves and busy brain are all at work to get something which he desires. He is a mechanic fashioning his little world to his own uses. He is a despot who insists on his divine right to rule the subservient creatures around him. He is an inventor devising ways and means to secure all the ends which he has the wit to see. That these great works on which he has set his heart end in self is obvious enough, but we forgive him. Altruism will come in its own time if we can train ourselves.

The word “altruism” most nearly means __________.

Possible Answers:

honesty

timidity

bravery

selflessness

discretion

Correct answer:

selflessness

Explanation:

The word “altruism” refers to acts of kindness and selflessness. It is often associated with charitable behavior. Within context of the sentence you know that “altruism” must refer to something positive, or opposite to the child’s previous behavior; because the author states that we “forgive the child” and wait for something to “come in its own time.” Bravery and honesty are both positive, but are less literal opposites to living a life of selfishness and need-fulfillment.

Example Question #2 : Specific Phrases And Sentences In Humanities Passages

Adapted from The Spoiled Children of Civilization (1912) by Samuel McChord Crothers

To spoil a child is no easy task, for Nature is all the time working on behalf of the childish virtues and veracities, and is gently correcting the abnormalities of education. Still it can be done. The secret of it is never to let the child alone, and to insist on doing for him all that he would otherwise do for himself—and more.

In that "more" is the spoiling power. The child must be early made acquainted with the feeling of satiety. There must be too much of everything. If he were left to himself to any extent, this would be an unknown experience. For he is a hungry little creature, with a growing appetite, and naturally is busy ministering to his own needs. He is always doing something for himself, and enjoys the exercise. The little egoist, even when he has "no language but a cry," uses that language to make known to the world that he wants something and wants it very much. As his wants increase, his exertions increase also. Arms and legs, fingers and toes, muscles and nerves and busy brain are all at work to get something which he desires. He is a mechanic fashioning his little world to his own uses. He is a despot who insists on his divine right to rule the subservient creatures around him. He is an inventor devising ways and means to secure all the ends which he has the wit to see. That these great works on which he has set his heart end in self is obvious enough, but we forgive him. Altruism will come in its own time if we can train ourselves.

The “virtues and veracities” of childish nature most literally correspond to __________.

Possible Answers:

goodness and honesty

wants and needs

laziness and temerity

respectfulness and godliness

hunger and desire

Correct answer:

goodness and honesty

Explanation:

The easiest manner by which to solve this question is matching definitions. Virtue refers to the quality of goodness and veracity means honesty; however, if you were not aware of the definitions you can still solve the question by understand the context within which “virtues and veracities” are discussed. In the first paragraph the author constructs a contrast between the “correcting” aspect of nature and the spoiling “abnormalities” of education and human interference. This means the description of the affects of nature have to be positive. Of the answer choices goodness and honesty represent the best match for a positive description.

Example Question #2 : How To Find The Meaning Of Words With Multiple Meanings

"Preparing for Standardized Tests: Two Approaches" by Matthew Minerd (2013)

Generally speaking, there are two major camps regarding the appropriate manner by which one should approach a standardized test. On the one hand, there are those people and businesses that believe that you should learn the “tricks of the test.” This approach encourages the idea that the given exam relies on a set of “inside tricks” that will fool students who are not well-informed about the way such tricks are designed. It likewise focuses less on content then on strategies for answering questions. On the other hand, there is the camp that believes that the best way to approach an exam is to be a complete expert on the content that will be examined. While this approach focuses on teaching the subject matter that will be tested, it often focuses very little on the test-taking strategies that can aid students who are taking a given exam. Although there are numerous strong partisans regarding each approach, it must be admitted that both have their strengths and their weaknesses.

What does the underlined word “camp” mean in its context?

Possible Answers:

a group that supports a given position or belief

a place where something remains safe

a political party

a subset of a larger group

a specific type of decision out of a general class

Correct answer:

a group that supports a given position or belief

Explanation:

The word "camp" can be used outside its standard context of tents and other such things that are used in the wild or in military campaigns.  In an extended sense, the term can mean "a group supporting a particular doctrine or position."  When we speak of "two camps," it is like there are two groups that are "camped out" on their respective positions—not physical positions but ideological ones.

Example Question #22 : Hspt Reading

"Preparing for Standardized Tests: Two Approaches" by Matthew Minerd (2013)

Generally speaking, there are two major camps regarding the appropriate manner by which one should approach a standardized test. On the one hand, there are those people and businesses that believe that you should learn the “tricks of the test.” This approach encourages the idea that the given exam relies on a set of “inside tricks” that will fool students who are not well-informed about the way such tricks are designed. It likewise focuses less on content then on strategies for answering questions. On the other hand, there is the camp that believes that the best way to approach an exam is to be a complete expert on the content that will be examined. While this approach focuses on teaching the subject matter that will be tested, it often focuses very little on the test-taking strategies that can aid students who are taking a given exam. Although there are numerous strong partisans regarding each approach, it must be admitted that both have their strengths and their weaknesses.

What does the underlined word “partisan” mean in its context?

Possible Answers:

a member of a political party

a type of political reactionary

a small percentage of a large whole

someone who supports a particular idea, thing or person

an argumentative person

Correct answer:

someone who supports a particular idea, thing or person

Explanation:

The word "partisan" is indeed related to the word "part," but be careful what you infer from this. It means a person who could be said to "take the part" (or "side") of some cause. This selection is discussing two different approaches to teaching standardized tests. Those who support one or the other of these approaches could be called a "partisan" of that given approach.

Example Question #3 : How To Find The Meaning Of Words With Multiple Meanings

"The Difficulties of Writing One's First Research Paper" by Matthew Minerd (2013)

When a high school student writes his or her first research paper, he or she likely will face a number of difficulties in finding and using sources for the essay. The single most significant of these difficulties is the finding of sources for the paper. The student will likely only know about his or her topic from the discussion that has occurred in class, based on the textbook that is being used. For a research paper, however, it will be necessary to find appropriate texts in the library to support the topic about which he or she is writing. This can be quite overwhelming, for there are often so many books on a given topic that it is difficult to know where to begin if your starting point is only a high school textbook. Many students will be tempted to use every book that they find, not focusing on the most appropriate texts for the topic. On the other hand, some students will rely heavily on a single book on the topic. In this case, many things are overlooked because of the student’s narrow research. Of course, there are a number of other difficulties involved in the writing of such a paper, but the use of sources likely remains the most troublesome by far.

What is the meaning of the underlined word “heavily” used above?

Possible Answers:

having a lot of fat

lazily

sluggishly

ponderously

to a great degree

Correct answer:

to a great degree

Explanation:

The word "heavily" can be used to describe doing something to a great degree. Of course, when we speak of a "heavy snow," we do not mean to say that the snow is necessarily physically heavy. When the word takes on a further metaphorical meaning, it can mean more generally "to a great degree" in a general way. Here, the word is used to describe the overuse of a single source by a student.

Example Question #352 : Isee Lower Level (Grades 5 6) Reading Comprehension

"The Aging of Public Transportation Systems" by Matthew Minerd (2013)

As cities develop, their public transportation systems often show signs of aging that are mixed with aspects that are quite up-to-date.  An example of such a situation can be found in the transportation system in Washington DC. This system is made up of a mixture of buses and trains that connect people to locations in DC, Maryland, and Virginia. While the system has been well maintained and updated over the years, it still shows evidence that certain sections are older than others.

This is particularly noticeable when one considers the multiple lines that connect in Washington DC itself. Within the city, there are five different sets of tracks that run in various directions and to sundry places. A number of the newer lines are in excellent condition and rarely break down; however, the case of the red line is somewhat different. This oldest line of the metro train system often has issues because of its age, experiencing a number of track and signal issues even at rush hour when the overall system is its most efficient. Admittedly, the transportation authority is working to update this line and make it less problematic. Still, until this work is completed, it is obvious to all who are familiar with the metro train system that the red line is the oldest and most out of date.

What does the “sundry” mean in its context?

Possible Answers:

Several or various

Dried areas underground

Important

Questionable

Having beautiful vistas

Correct answer:

Several or various

Explanation:

The word "sundry" generally means "several" or "having a variety of kinds / types." This is definitely what is being expressed here, for the sentence is discussing tracks that run in various directions to different places. The word "sundry" is related to "sunder," which means "to cut apart." Things that are "varied" can be said to be, in a sense, cut apart from each other.

Example Question #5 : How To Find The Meaning Of Words With Multiple Meanings

"Conservatism" by Matthew Minerd (2013)

In American politics, there is perhaps no word that is more over-simplified than “conservative.” Many people use this term as though it has a single meaning and expresses a single historical-political outlook. Nothing could be further from the truth. The development of American conservatism must be understood as a combination of a number of strands of ideology that often coexist with great tension and difficulty. Although there are many groups that are combined in this larger assortment, two examples will suffice to show the great diversity present in this seemingly simple group.

For instance, there are the “traditionalist conservatives,” who generally are concerned with preserving Western culture and tradition against the developments of modern thought and culture. In many ways, this type of conservatism is the most “conserving”; that is, traditionalists are primarily concerned with maintaining the “old order” of Western civilization and learning. Because of these concerns, the traditionalist conservatives are very wary of any kind of major governmental program that promises to bring a “new order” into existence. While not disagreeing with the idea of progress, these conservatives believe that any such changes should occur organically, in a natural manner over a period of years. 

On the other hand, there are also the “libertarians," who are often classed as “conservatives” as well. They are surprisingly different from the traditionalist conservatives. The libertarians are primarily concerned with maximizing freedom and limiting the role of government in individual lives. In many ways, they represent the kind of modern individualism disagreed with by the traditionalists.

These two opposed groups are able to come together in the general notion of “conservatism” because of their shared attitudes toward the government, particularly the federal government. The traditionalists wish to limit the role of the federal government out of a fear that it will ruin traditional culture through radically new plans and agendas. The libertarians seek to limit it out of a desire to give individual citizens maximum freedom of choice and action. While these two branches of “conservatism” are in many ways opposed to each other, they somehow manage to coexist along with many other positions that are all called “conservative” in spite of similarly striking differences.

What does the underlined word “branches” mean in its context?

Possible Answers:

A piecemeal approach

An expansion

Living sprout

Subdivision

An argumentative faction

Correct answer:

Subdivision

Explanation:

When the word "branch" is used as a verb, it means "to divide out into parts." When we consider the "branching of a tree," we are considering how the single trunk gradually becomes many branches—many divided and independent parts of the whole tree. Now, the "two branches of 'conservatism'" are parts of the whole. While they are said to be in conflict, they do indeed come together as subdivisions of the broader group named "conservatism"—like branches are parts of a single tree.

Example Question #4 : How To Find The Meaning Of Words With Multiple Meanings

"Online Shopping Options" by Matthew Minerd (2013)

Often, online retailers provide special “favored customer” options that allow customers to spend a small subscription fee in order to receive special pricing and shipping options. Often, these customers believe that they are receiving a great deal of savings, particularly if this option greatly reduces the costs of having items shipped. While such an arrangement can allow someone to make previously planned purchases at a great discount, it likewise can become a great temptation to spend much more money than they would ever have spent had they not had the “favored customer” status.

What is the meaning of the underlined word “arrangement” in the context in which it is used in the passage?

Possible Answers:

Legal proceeding

Organization

Agreement or established state of affairs

Strange occurrence

Group of beautiful things

Correct answer:

Agreement or established state of affairs

Explanation:

In its most general sense, the word "arrangement" means "an ordering of things." This takes on various meanings (as in, for example, "an arrangement of flowers" and "a musical arrangement"). It can likewise have the meaning used here, namely "an agreement." For instance, one could say, "The two men had made an arrangement to pick up each other's mail when one of them was out of town." This is clearly the sense of the word used in the passage, because it discusses an arrangement regarding shipping procedures and costs.

Example Question #7 : How To Find The Meaning Of Words With Multiple Meanings

"Conservatism" by Matthew Minerd (2013)

In American politics, there is perhaps no word that is more over-simplified than “conservative.” Many people use this term as though it has a single meaning and expresses a single historical-political outlook. Nothing could be further from the truth. The development of American conservatism must be understood as a combination of a number of strands of ideology that often coexist with great tension and difficulty. Although there are many groups that are combined in this larger assortment, two examples will suffice to show the great diversity present in this seemingly simple group.

For instance, there are the “traditionalist conservatives,” who generally are concerned with preserving Western culture and tradition against the developments of modern thought and culture. In many ways, this type of conservatism is the most “conserving”; that is, traditionalists are primarily concerned with maintaining the “old order” of Western civilization and learning. Because of these concerns, the traditionalist conservatives are very wary of any kind of major governmental program that promises to bring a “new order” into existence. While not disagreeing with the idea of progress, these conservatives believe that any such changes should occur organically, in a natural manner over a period of years. 

On the other hand, there are also the “libertarians," who are often classed as “conservatives” as well. They are surprisingly different from the traditionalist conservatives. The libertarians are primarily concerned with maximizing freedom and limiting the role of government in individual lives. In many ways, they represent the kind of modern individualism disagreed with by the traditionalists.

These two opposed groups are able to come together in the general notion of “conservatism” because of their shared attitudes toward the government, particularly the federal government. The traditionalists wish to limit the role of the federal government out of a fear that it will ruin traditional culture through radically new plans and agendas. The libertarians seek to limit it out of a desire to give individual citizens maximum freedom of choice and action. While these two branches of “conservatism” are in many ways opposed to each other, they somehow manage to coexist along with many other positions that are all called “conservative” in spite of similarly striking differences.

What does the underlined word “organically” mean in its context?

Possible Answers:

In a lively way

In a healthy way

Gradually

Without artificial additives

In a socially responsible way

Correct answer:

Gradually

Explanation:

Do not be fooled by the other meanings of "organic." Something is called "organic" if it is directly related to the idea of living. Often, it is contrasted to "inorganic" matter. The word can also be used to describe human phenomena—as it is here. The best context clue for this is the words directly following the word "organically" in the passage, "in a naturally manner over a period of years." In particular, the key expression is "over a period of years." "Organic changes" are changes that do not occur by sudden alterations or revolutions. Instead, they are "gradual"—that is, step-by-step and continuous.

Example Question #13 : Language In Contemporary Life Passages

"Why Learning Multiple Languages in Graduate School is Important" by Matthew Minerd (2013)

In graduate school, students are often required to learn a number of foreign languages in addition to their regular coursework. This can be quite frustrating and difficult, for the normal courses in graduate school require significantly more reading and writing than do undergraduate courses. It is not unusual for graduate students to have regular reading assignments of several hundred pages for each course that they take. Likewise, they often write papers of much greater length than those that they wrote as undergraduate students. When language examinations are added to this difficult course load, it can be very frustrating for graduate students to try to find the time to prepare for these additional examinations.

Although these frustrations are understandable, this system has not been created solely to cause woe for graduate students. Much of the work for which these students are being prepared will focus on research. While much has been written in English about many topics, adequate research can only be done if one is able to read what people have written in other languages. For instance, there are many important articles and books written about almost every topic by European scholars. If a graduate student does not know any foreign languages, all of these article and books will be impossible to read, and hence useless to their research endeavors. This would be a great loss for a student's research. Therefore, in spite of its frustrating aspects, the language examination process is an important component of graduate school education.

What is the meaning of the underlined word, “woe,” in the passage above?

Possible Answers:

distress

waste

hatred

fear

anger

Correct answer:

distress

Explanation:

The word "woe" can mean either "significant sorrow" or also "distress." The sentence begins by saying that these students do have understandable frustrations; however, the point being made is that the system of examinations is not intended solely to cause such distressing conditions. This is the best meaning for the word "woe" among those provided.

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