Human Anatomy and Physiology : Identifying Structures of the Brain

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Identifying Structures Of The Brain

The central sulcus separates which two structures?

Possible Answers:

Frontal lobe and pre-frontal cortex

Frontal lobe and parietal lobe

Parietal lobe and temporal lobe

Parietal lobe and occipital lobe

Right hemisphere and left hemisphere

Correct answer:

Frontal lobe and parietal lobe

Explanation:

The sulci, or folds, of the brain help to compartmentalize activity and increase surface area. The central sulcus runs along the coronal plane, from right to left across the surface of the brain. The frontal lobe is anterior to the sulcus and the parietal lobe is posterior to the sulcus.

The lateral sulcus separates the parietal lobe and temporal lobe. The parietooccipital sulcus separates the parietal and occipital lobes.

Example Question #2 : Identifying Structures Of The Brain

Which of the following layers of the meninges is the innermost layer that lines the cerebral cortex?

Possible Answers:

Pia mater

Dura mater

Subarachnoid mater

Arachnoid mater

Correct answer:

Pia mater

Explanation:

The meninges are responsible for protecting the brain and spinal cord. The tough dura mater is the outermost layer of the meninges, while the pia mater is the delicate inner layer that lines the brain and spinal cord.

In order from the outermost to innermost layer, the meninges are: dura mater, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, and pia mater. The arachnoid mater and subarachnoid space create separation and cushioning between the dura mater and pia mater.

Example Question #3 : Identifying Structures Of The Brain

Which of the following lobes of the brain has the function of processing auditory input and storing memory? 

Possible Answers:

Frontal lobe

Parietal lobe

Occipital lobe

Temporal lobe

Correct answer:

Temporal lobe

Explanation:

The temporal lobe is responsible for the interpretation of auditory stimuli. It also holds the hippocampus, a structure responsible for the formation and storage of memories.

The occipital lobe houses the visual cortex and the parietal lobe contains the somatosensory cortex (touch). The frontal lobe houses the motor cortex and functions in voluntary movement and conscious thought.

Example Question #4 : Identifying Structures Of The Brain

Which of the following is NOT a meningeal layer?

Possible Answers:

Pia mater

Dura mater

Subarachnoid mater

Arachnoid mater

Correct answer:

Subarachnoid mater

Explanation:

The meninges consist of three layers of connective tissue that surround the central nervous system. Dura mater is the thick outermost layer and serves to partition the central nervous system and meninges from the rest of the body. Arachnoid mater is the loose middle layer with a web-like appearance and helps cushion and protect the central nervous system. The subarachnoid space exists between the arachnoid and pia mater and is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. Pia mater is the delicate inner layer that adheres to the surface of the brain and spinal cord, creating one final barrier.

Example Question #5 : Identifying Structures Of The Brain

Which of the following is not a component of the central nervous system?

Possible Answers:

Optic nerve

Oculomotor nerve

Meninges

Globus pallidus

Correct answer:

Oculomotor nerve

Explanation:

The nervous system can be separated into the central and peripheral divisions. The central nervous system houses the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system contains all offshoots of the spinal cord.

The brain contains several structure and serves as the point of origin for the twelve cranial nerves. The globus pallidus is a subcortical structure in the brain. The olfactory (CNI) and optic nerves (CNII) are located exclusively within the brain, never actually deviating into the periphery. These are the only cranial nerves considered to be part of the central nervous system. The meninges are the layers of connective tissue that surround the spinal cord and brain, creating the blood-brain barrier. The meninges include the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater and are considered part of the central nervous system.

The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve (CNIII), and is considered part of the peripheral nervous system.

 

Example Question #6 : Identifying Structures Of The Brain

What structure connects the two hemispheres of the brain?

Possible Answers:

Cerebellum

Corpus callosum

Medulla

Infundibulum

Correct answer:

Corpus callosum

Explanation:

The structure that connects the brain is called the corpus callosum. The medulla and cerebellum are part of the midbrain and hindbrain respectively. The infundibulum is the stalk of the pituitary gland.

Example Question #7 : Identifying Structures Of The Brain

Which of the following parts of the brain is responsible for emotional regulation?

Possible Answers:

Amygdala

Cerebellum

Medulla

Hippocampus

Correct answer:

Amygdala

Explanation:

The amygdala is the center of emotions in the brain. The hippocampus is an area of learning and memory. The cerebellum is related to coordination of muscle activity. The medulla is for homeostasis of vital body functions.

Example Question #2 : Identifying Structures Of The Brain

Which of the primary lobes of the brain is devoted to vision?

Possible Answers:

Cerebellum

Parietal lobe

Occipital lobe

Frontal lobe

Temporal lobe

Correct answer:

Occipital lobe

Explanation:

The occipital lobe is devoted to vision. It is located on the posterior aspect of the brain. Compared to the other three primary lobes it has very few jobs. Similar to temporal lobe which makes sense of auditory stimuli (amongst other things) and the parietal lobe which processes touch sensations, temperature etc., the occipital lobe allows us to process what we see. The cerebellum is not a primary lobe of the brain, and it functions in coordinating motor movements such as walking and playing the guitar.

Example Question #7 : Identifying Structures Of The Brain

What is the falx cerebelli?

Possible Answers:

A thin meningeal layer that covers the surface of the brain

A dural fold that separates the cerebellar hemispheres

A fluid filled cavity within the cerebrum

A dural fold that separates the cerebrum and cerebellum

Correct answer:

A dural fold that separates the cerebellar hemispheres

Explanation:

The falx cerebelli is a dural fold that separates the two cerebellar hemispheres. The tentorium cerebelli is the dural fold that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum. A ventricle is a fluid filled cavity within the cerebrum through which cerebrospinal fluid circulates. The pia mater is the deepest, thin meningeal layer that covers the surface of the brain.

Example Question #8 : Identifying Structures Of The Brain

Which of the following describes the medulla?

Possible Answers:

Round bulges that relay signals to the cerebellum

Lowest part of the brainstem

Protruding columns that contain bundles of motor nerve fibers

The highest part of the brainstem

Correct answer:

Lowest part of the brainstem

Explanation:

The medulla (oblongata) is the lowest part of the brainstem. It controls many autonomic functions such as regulation of heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure. The pyramids are the two protruding columns found on the front of the medulla that contain motor nerve fibers. The olives are the round bulges found on the front and side of the medulla that relay signals to the cerebellum. The midbrain is the highest part of the brainstem.

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