Human Anatomy and Physiology : Identifying Respiratory and Endocrine Organs

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

← Previous 1 3 4

Example Question #1 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

What is the name of the structure that covers the trachea during swallowing?

Possible Answers:

Uvula

Epiglottis

Pharyngeal tonsil

Glottis

Correct answer:

Epiglottis

Explanation:

The epiglottis is a structure just above the glottis at the upper part of the larynx, and is composed of elastic cartilage. It prevents food from entering the trachea during swallowing by bending horizontally and covering the glottis. This allows the epiglottis to redirect food to the esophagus.

The uvula is the posterior projection of the soft palate and can cover the nasal cavity when swallowing so that food cannot enter. The pharyngeal tonsils are masses of lymphatic tissue found behind the uvula.

Example Question #1 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

What is the site of gas exchange in the body?

Possible Answers:

Trachea

Bronchi

Alveoli

Respiratory bronchioles

Correct answer:

Alveoli

Explanation:

Alveoli are small grape-like clusters that branch off of the respiratory bronchioles. These alveoli are the sites where oxygen diffuses into the capillaries, and carbon dioxide is exchanged in order to be exhaled.

The respiratory tract begins with the mouth and nasal passages and carries air to and from the alveoli for gas exchange. After entering the mouth and nasal passages, air travels through the pharynx and larynx before entering the trachea. The trachea divides into two primary bronchi before subdividing into numerous smaller bronchioles. Alveoli are located in clusters at the ends of bronchioles and are surrounded by capillaries for gas exchange to occur.

Example Question #3 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

Which of the following does not serve an endocrine function?

Possible Answers:

Liver

Pancreas

Kidney

Medulla oblongata

Heart

Correct answer:

Medulla oblongata

Explanation:

Endocrine organs are capable of secreting hormone signals into the blood. The heart releases atrial-natriuretic hormone, which stimulates vasodilation to reduce blood pressure and affects kidney function. The liver releases insulin-like growth factor in response to growth hormone, which has direct effects on stimulating cell growth and division. The kidneys release renin, which acts to increase blood pressure via sodium retention. The pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon to regulate blood glucose concentration.

The medulla oblongata is located in the brain stem and regulates several vital functions, such as respiration and heart rate. It performs these actions via action potentials and innervation, rather than the secretion of hormones.

Example Question #4 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

Which of the following is a false statement about the pleura in the thoracic cavity?

Possible Answers:

The visceral pleura is sensitive to pain

Parietal pleura is innervated by the intercostal nerves and phrenic nerves

Parietal pleura has four parts: costal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic, and cervical

Visceral pleura lines the lungs

Correct answer:

The visceral pleura is sensitive to pain

Explanation:

The pleura is a thin membrane that is made of the parietal and visceral pleura. The parietal pleura serves as lining for the thoracic cavity and the mediastinum. It is comprised of four parts: cervical, mediastinal, diaphragmatic, and costal. The parietal pleura is supplied by the intercostal nerves and the phrenic nerves, while the visceral pleura contains vasomotor nerves and sensory fibers from the vagus nerve. The parietal pleura is sensitive to pain, while the visceral is only sensitive to stretch. The visceral pleura lines the lungs and is delivered oxygen by the bronchial arteries.

Example Question #5 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

Which of the following is a false statement about the lungs?

Possible Answers:

The left lung is divided into two lobes

The lungs are the organs for respiration

The right lung is smaller and lighter than the left lung

The right lung has a lower, middle, and upper lobe

Correct answer:

The right lung is smaller and lighter than the left lung

Explanation:

The lungs are central to respiration and have connections with the heart and trachea. The lungs expand downwards during inspiration and upwards with expiration due to movement by the diaphragm situated below them. Lung tissue is innervated by parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve fibers that control secretory glands and smooth muscle.

The right lung is much larger and heavier when compared to the left lung. It is divided into three lobes by the oblique and horizontal fissures: lower, middle and upper. The left lung is divided into the upper and lower lobes solely by the oblique fissure. However, it does contain a small tongue-like portion attached to the upper lobe called the lingula. The lungs are supplied by the bronchial arteries and drained by the pulmonary veins.

Example Question #6 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

How many stages of development do the lungs undergo before they are considered fully developed?

Possible Answers:

Nine

Five

Four

Seven

Correct answer:

Four

Explanation:

From the embryonic period to the age of almost 8 years, the lungs will go through four stages to become fully developed. The four stages are glandular, canalicular, terminal sac period, and alveolar period. The glandular stage begins from week 5 of the prenatal period until week 17 and involves the formation of the terminal bronchioles. The canalicular period is from week 13 until week 25 of prenatal life. Respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts form, but they are not mature enough to support breathing outside the uterus. The third stage is called the terminal sac period and takes place from prenatal weeks 24 until birth. This stage forms more terminal sacs and surfactant. Respiration is possible at this time and premature babies can survive if given proper treatment. The last stage of lung development is called the alveolar period, which is from very late into fetal life until the age of 8 years. The alveoli continue to replicate in numbers and the lungs further mature.

Example Question #7 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

Which division of the mediastinum contains the thymus?

Possible Answers:

Anterior

Superior

Posterior

Middle

Correct answer:

Superior

Explanation:

The mediastinum is the area found in the thorax contained by the pleural cavities, sternum, and vertebral column. It is further divided into four main divisions: the superior, anterior, middle, and posterior. The superior mediastinum is bordered by the first rib superiorly, anteriorly by the manubrium of the sternum, and posteriorly by the 4th and 5th thoracic vertebra. An imaginary line can be drawn from the intervertebral disk between the 4th and 5th vertebrae to the sternal angle to mark the inferior limits of the superior division. This region contains important structures, vessels, and nerves such as the arch of the aorta, the trachea, and the esophagus. It also contains the thymus. The thymus is the location where immature T-cells mature, and can then contribute to an immunological response. This lymphatic structure will involute with the start of puberty.

Example Question #8 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

At what point does the trachea branch into the right and left bronchi?

Possible Answers:

Cricoid cartilage

Level of the sternal angle

Level of the xiphoid process

Diagphragm

Correct answer:

Level of the sternal angle

Explanation:

The trachea is the structure through which air is transported to the bronchi and the lungs. Its superior border is the cricoid cartilage at the 6th cervical vertebra, and it ends with its bifurcation into the right and left main bronchi at the level of the sternal angle. The trachea is on average 9cm to 15cm long and is lined by hyaline cartilage that hold its shape.

Example Question #9 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

Why are objects more likely to lodge in the right main bronchus?

Possible Answers:

The right bronchus typically has more secretions than the left

The right bronchus is longer, wider, and less vertical than the left

The right bronchus is shorter, narrower, and more vertical than the left

The right bronchus is shorter, wider, and more vertical than the left

Correct answer:

The right bronchus is shorter, wider, and more vertical than the left

Explanation:

The trachea bifurcates into the left main and right main bronchus at the level of the sternal angle in the thorax. When an object is accidently inhaled, it will most likely lodge in the right main bronchus or the inferior lobar bronchus, which is a further division of the right main. The right bronchus is shorter, wider, and more vertical than the left, leading to a more direct path for any objects inhaled and a higher probability that they will enter the right branch than the left.

Example Question #10 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

What respiratory system structure is referred to as the windpipe and is a circular tube supported by rings of cartilage?

Possible Answers:

Pharynx

Bronchi

Trachea

Epiglottis

Larynx

Correct answer:

Trachea

Explanation:

The trachea, or windpipe, is a rigid tube that carries air from the larynx into the bronchi. The rigidity comes from C-shaped rings of cartilage.

The pharynx, or throat, is a muscular funnel that receives air from the nose, and food and drink from the mouth. The larynx, or voice box, is also formed from cartilage. The uppermost cartilage is the epiglottis, which separates the respiratory tract from the digestive tract. The thyroid cartilage, or "Adam's apple," forms the anterior and lateral walls of the larynx. The cricoid cartilage connects the larynx to the trachea. The bronchi are also supported by C-shaped cartilages. The bronchi transport air into the lungs following bifurcation of the trachea.

← Previous 1 3 4
Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors

Incompatible Browser

Please upgrade or download one of the following browsers to use Instant Tutoring: